In the first part of this coursework it will be argued that the study of Kaptein et al.  on means based adaptive persuasive systems is an interesting piece of research that could formulate new questions and hypotheses in the area of adapted persuasive systems. The argument will be developed through a critical review of the Kaptein et al. paper, discussing in turn its theoretical origins, research methodologies, main findings, and design implications.
To begin with, the authors suggest that the large differences in individual responses to persuasive strategies will, in due course, lead to systems that rely heavily on persuasion profiles. These persuasion profiles are defined as estimates of the susceptibility of a specific user to alternate influence strategies . They justify the paper’s focus on the grounds that empirical data regarding user involvement could provide a strong foundation for the design of the type of systems mentioned above.
To support their claim, Kaptein et al. present two studies that investigated the effects of selection, disclosure, and multiple approach usage on user compliance to persuasive attempts. The authors’ research findings suggest that involving users in the selection of a particular influence approach can increase compliance. Finally, they show that is optimal to select a unique appropriate persuasive strategy for a specific set of conditions, which in combination with the previous suggestion, resonate the core theme of the paper that means based manipulations have the capacity to increase compliance to persuasive systems.
The general context of this paper is persuasive technology, which is designed to alter user attitudes or behaviors through persuasion and social influence . Persuasive technologies have been an increasingly notable research domain in the field of Human – Computer Interaction. Mobile and ambient systems are nowadays widely available and a fundamental part of our environment. A plethora of persuasive systems are influencing positively users’ wellbeing  ranging from health improving tools [5, 6], to applications that enhance social interactions .
As mentioned previously, relevant research indicates noteworthy variations in users’ responses to persuasion techniques [e.g. 8] and suggests the use of persuasion profiles . These are typically adaptive persuasion systems that change their influencing attempts based on prompts that individual users trigger with their actions . Adaptive persuasion systems differ from other adaptive systems because they “adapt the means” [ibid, p.335], that is to say the persuasive approach, instead of the ends (user action). Most of the research related to adaptive persuasive systems mainly studies their reaction to environmental and contextual changes [e.g. 9]. Adaptation based on the efficiency of persuasive techniques is, as Kaptein et al. argue in , still unusual and thus makes their study results significant as a basis for future research in...