Born To Smoke: Ties Between Genetics And Cigarette

2041 words - 8 pages

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths in all the developed countries. Despite increased federal and state initiatives (as well as those of numerous non-governmental organizations) to combat this affliction in the United States, the response to the anti-smoking campaign has been mixed at best. Though there has been a decrease in male smoking as a whole, however, this victory is weakened by the increase in smoking among females. The campaigns have also spurred a change in the habit's demographic, as current smoking in the United States is positively associated with younger age, lower income, reduced educational achievement, and disadvantaged neighborhood environment (Krogh 115). But puzzling statistics point out that factors beyond demographics contribute to the problem. Throughout the scientific community, conclusive links between depression and cigarette smoking have been found regardless of demographic. And although it has been proven that cigarettes are comparable in addictivity to Heroin (Seppa), scientists were baffled to find that only one third of all beginning smokers become regular users (Pomerleau). Increasingly scientists are seeking out (and finding) cohesive genetic links to aspects of tobacco use. Scientists have thus far identified a gene in part responsible for cigarette addiction as well as a certain genotype that significantly increases the probability of commencing tobacco use. The implications of these findings are immense. By developing an understanding of the complexities of the habit, anti-smoking campaigns of the future will be able to far more effectively combat the killer and save millions of lives.Long before smoking began to be thought of as a societal affliction, scientists began to see evidence of an inherited predisposition to smoke. As early as 1962, scientists stumbled upon the possibility of heritability in conjunction with smoking by examining the habits of several sets of identical twins (Krogh 116). The 1962 study set a new precedent, suggesting for the first time smoking was not entirely a question of nurture rather than nature, and its results have been replicated numerous times. Twin studies have continued in the present day to provide a conclusive and stunning link between tobacco use and genetics. In a study of 778 reared-apart twins, the correlation in smoking habits between identical (monozygotic) twins was found to be significantly more similar than that of fraternal (dizygotic) twins (Kendler, Thornton, Pederson). These results support the possibility of genetic influences on both the predilections to begin smoking and to continue, which accurately foreshadowed the roles of the two exact genes isolated thus far which definitively play a hand in the smoking habit. Other twin studies have made even more exact correlations, finding that genetics can play a hand in age of onset of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked per day (Heath, Martin) as well as persistence of smoking and...

Find Another Essay On Born To Smoke: Ties Between Genetics and Cigarette

Is There a Significant Difference in Lung Cancer Rates Between Males and Females that Smoke

975 words - 4 pages months?”, their pool of respondents were all those who have ever smoked at least 100 cigarettes and those who smoke sometimes. This was a yes or no question in which the entries were very closely split, there was a 53.1% for the yes and a 46.9% for the no, there was a total of 141 sample responses see table 1.1. My second question is “How likely do you think it is that the average male or female cigarette smoker will develop cancer in the future

Ties between nature and magic in Sir Orfeo and A Midsummer night's dream - Close reading essay - Essay

810 words - 4 pages Close Reading Essay "Sir Orfeo" and 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' show close ties between nature and magic and imply that nature and magic are interrelated. There are many cases of magical events taking place in natural surroundings in both the works. This essay will explore these instances and will work on establishing ties between nature and magic. To begin with, in "Sir Orfeo" when Heurodis first sees the king of Faeries she is in a green

The Vietnam War and its Subsequent Ties to the Cold War

2789 words - 11 pages The Cold War was a prolonged period of political and military tension between countries on the side of democracy and those on the side of communism, the major players being the United States belonging to the former and the Soviet Union belonging to the latter (Westad). While the Cold War was known as such because there were no direct wars between the two major powers, there was large scale fighting in Vietnam. The Vietnam War (1954-75) is

TO WHAT EXTENT HAVE CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENTS BEEN CHANGED AND DEVELOPED IN AMERICA SINCE THE 20TH CENTURY?

1015 words - 5 pages targeted audience. For example, the way the surrounding clouds resemble clouds of smoke which protects them like a warm blanket, creating a calm and pleasant mood. Furthermore, as the woman’s face is lit up by the man lighting his Chesterfield cigarette, the slogan, ‘’Blow some my way’’, has been positioned close to the woman in an attractive italics font creating a romantic tone as the audience can imagine the words coming from her mouth. This

TO WHAT EXTENT HAVE CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENTS BEEN CHANGED AND DEVELOPED IN AMERICA SINCE THE 20TH CENTURY?

1154 words - 5 pages and unforgettable. For example, the use of imperatives like ‘hit’ and ‘make,’ is used to instruct the reader to smoke this cigarette. Alliteration is evident in, ‘’smoking satisfaction without inhaling smoke’’ and ‘’Different. Delicious,’’ which gives the text a smoother flow and makes it more catchy to readers. The use of repetition, especially the repeat of ‘Tipalet’ increases brand awareness and would make it easier for the viewer to memorize

Language Culture and the Brain: Ties Between Neurolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology As Seen in Japanese, English (British and American), and Arabic

3955 words - 16 pages In sociological contexts, language and culture are often linked. Linguistic Anthropology is an entire field of study dedicated to the interaction between language and culture. There is also an emerging field dedicated to the relationship between language and the brain: Neurolinguistics. However, culture and language are not as commonly associated together within a neurological or biological context. Yet, there are proven correlations between the

"A Farewell To Arms" : This essay shows how existentialism ties into the novel and gives description of important events

658 words - 3 pages This novel shows the existentialist way of thinking in the way that each person's life in the war was unique and the existence of that individual is unexplainable. Each move and each act is that person's responsibility, which may lead to something else, sometimes the difference between life and death. There is no God to watch over man, to dictate morality, or to reassure justice. Instead, the universe is indifferent and hostile to a soldier's

Should Doctors Have the Right To Refuse Surgery On Patients who smoke and will continue to do so after surgery

1030 words - 4 pages associated with smoking. This is because tobacco smoke contains carcinogens, such as tar. Carcinogens in the smoke increase chance of mutation in certain genes that control cell division. Smoking is also related to cancer of other organs such as the throat.Smoking increases the risk of heart disease. This is due to the drug (poison) entering the blood stream as tobacco smoke is inhaled. If all the nicotine was extracted from one cigarette and

Children and their ties to the Parents

763 words - 3 pages English EssayWe are yet children, the seeds that have been planted and hoped to grow into that one tall and sturdy tree, but the moment we try to break away from our roots and follow the paths of others not only will we fail to become that tree but also that we will never be recognised as the seeds we are! From a child's first breath to their first word, from their first step to their very first tooth, parents have always been there to protect

Discuss how Meg Bateman and Sylvia Plath explore the experiences of motherhood in the poems `To my `new-born child` and `Morning song ` Discuss ho

747 words - 3 pages does not have any control over her baby. The mother has put herself in a cloud’s position and describes when the wind blows the cloud the cloud is blown away giving the impression it has no control. This is how the mother feels towards her baby that she has no control over her. Closer to the end of the two poems there is a more positive relationship between the mother and baby. In `To my new-born child` the mother has a very different scenario from

Position paper on Smoking- In a society of mystic illusions and grandeur all around us from billboards, to the constant bombardment of television and radio ads, Are they just blowing smoke. .

774 words - 3 pages Position PaperUniversity of Phoenix - Atlanta CampusEssentials of College WritingDr. Baji DanielsOctober 14, 2003AbstractThis subject could affect our everyday health, it is everywhere, even as we speak it is all around and we don't even know it's there, or do we; this subject I am referring to is cigarette smoking. Bombarded by advertisements from the local newspapers, to the international motion picture/film and television society, to the

Similar Essays

Cigarette Smoke And Vitamin A As Teratogens

1058 words - 5 pages , hyperactivity, attention, and cognitive impairments being more likely in babies born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Cigarette smoke is likely a Category B teratogen. Exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with certain issues, but no controlled studies would be available to analyze. The effects of exposure to this teratogen, when present, are relatively mild (except death). The birth defects can be corrected with surgery, the

Smoke And Mirrors: Controversy Over Electronic Cigarette Regulation

1825 words - 8 pages Riley is an 18-year-old resident of Parker, Colorado. He’s active in his community and volunteers through the local public library, he’s a genuinely nice guy, and he’s a smoker. A few months ago, Riley decided that he wanted to minimize his health risks from smoking cigarettes, so he switched to a new alternative: an e-cigarette. Electronic cigarettes contain no tobacco, and vaporize a vegetable glycerol fluid that contains nicotine

The Relationship Between Genetics And Violence

2197 words - 9 pages . Technological advances have allowed researchers to delve into the causes behind violent acts and tendencies. Although genetics does not fully predict who will have violent urges, it does play a large role in the predisposition towards violent tendencies. Some of these causes are linked to hormones, like the amount of adolescent testosterone. Others are linked to brain activity, mainly in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. There

The House On Mango Street; A Look At The Ties Between Sex, Violence, And Pleasure

880 words - 4 pages girls see a violent danger that can come from a sexual desire; A desire that would not be as dangerous if the girls had been older, but rather expected since a girl’s dream is to find a man . The lines get blurred between sexual desire and violence in “The First Job”. Esperanza met an oriental man at her first day of work who said it was his birthday and requested a kiss. Meaning to only kiss the man on the cheek, Esperanza agrees. The man then