1. Young Earth creationism
Young Earth creationists believe that Earth and everything on it was created by God between 5700 and 10000 years ago (Numbers, 2006). They believe in a literal interpretation of the Bible in terms of the age of the earth. They differ from old earth creationists who interpret Genesis metaphorically and believe that the Earth is 13.798 +- 0.037 old (Scott, 2000). Young earth creationists also interpret the passages in the bible of the flat Earth literally. They reject modern astronomy, physics, the big bang theory, the age of Earth and chemistry. They also reject biological modifications that happened throughout history. Young Earth creationists believe that God created every genetic variation in all living creatures on earth. Henry Morris was one of the biggest influences of young Earth creationism in the second half of the 20th century (Scott, 2000).
2. The Copernican Principle
Named after Nicolaus Copernicus the Copernican principle states that Earth is not situated in a favored or central position in the universe (Bondi, 1952). It is a shift from the Ptolemaic system which states that the earth is at the center of the universe and dates back to the 16th and 17th century. The Copernican principle is one of the primary principles in astronomy. It states that the sun is the center of the solar system. Copernicus was not satisfied with the earlier system and created a heliocentric model which demotes Earth from its central role in the universe (Kuhn, 1957). The Copernican principle implies that the universe appears isotropic in all directions from Earth which also implies that the universe is homogenous everywhere. This statement contradicts with modern astronomy which observes that the universe is homogenous (Rowan-Robinson, 1996). The Copernican principle is also the basis for steady-state cosmology created by Bondi and Thomas Gold. They argue that the universe is homogenous in time (Gold & Gold, 1948). Harlow Shapely used globular clusters in the early 20th century and proved that we were not the center of our galaxy.
Evolution is a belief that over time organisms increases in complicity through evolution (Kirkpatrick et al., 1985).
• Micro evolution – the change in allele frequencies occurring in a population. The change occurs because of four different types of processes: gene flow, genetic drift, mutation and selection both natural and artificial. According to evolutionists macro and micro evolution describes identical processes, but on different time scales (Futuyma, 1998).
Mutation – Changes in DNA sequences of the genome of a cell and is caused by viruses, radiation, mutagenic chemicals, transposons and errors in DNA replication (Bertram, 2000).
Selection – a process where certain heritable traits that allows the organism to survive successfully becomes more common in generations (Darwin, 1859).
Gene flow – Where genes exchange between populations that are the same species...