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Crime Essay

5164 words - 21 pages

Les chiffresAu cas où un coup d'oeil dans une cours de récréation ne suffirait pas, les chiffres en témoignent. En France, l'excès de poids touche autour de 20 %des enfants, dont environ 4 %sont obèses [ 1]. Des chiffres qui auraient pratiquement doublés entre les années 1980 et 2000. Alors à qui la faute ? Génétique, alimentation de la mère au cours de la grossesse, absence d'allaitement maternel, rebond pondéral précoce, composition nutritionnelle des laits infantiles, télévision, grignotage, manque d'activité physique... La liste des présumés coupable est longue, et le nombre d'interactions possibles entre ces différents items, également conséquent.Programmation métabolique précoce : l'impact des modifications de la nutrition infantile Pour essayer d'y voir plus clair et d'étudier l'impact possible de modifications de la nutrition infantile sur la santé des adultes, un programme de recherche regroupant seize pays européens, sur une durée de cinq ans, a été mis en place en 2005.The Early Nutrition Programming Project, est coordonné par Berthold Koletzko de l'université de Munich (Allemagne) qui l'a présenté lors du congrès de la Fens en juillet 2007.Pour lui : "Ces questions doivent être élucidées prioritairement du fait du potentiel préventif particulière ment important de l'optimisation de la nutrition dans les premiers mois de vie sur la santé à long terme et le bien-être."Ce programme intègre un essai d'intervention destiné à connaître l'impact à long terme chez des enfants en bonne santé d'un alignement de la formulation des laits infantiles sur la composition du lait maternel.Les arguments justifiant cette étudeL'allaitement maternelL'obésité infantile [ 2 ]Un gain pondéral élevé de zéro à deux ans augmenterait le risque de surpoids à l'âge scolaire [ 3]Un gain pondéral élevé et précoce multiplierait par deux ou trois le risque d'obésité à l'âge scolaire et adulte [ 4-6]. Ces éléments qui concernent la période postnatale s'associerait à ceux de la période prénatale pour établir une "programmation métabolique précoce de la santé à l'âge adulte", tendance émergente au vue des dernières études cliniques et épidémiologiques.Se concentrer sur ces périodesEn encourageant l'allaitement maternel exclusif jusqu'à l'âge de quatre à six moisEn agissant au niveau de l'équilibre alimentaire de la mère au cours de la grossesseEn agissant au...

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