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Criminalogical Theories: An Exploration Of Social Disorganization, Differential Association, Anomie And Rational Theory.

1147 words - 5 pages

There are many theories of crime some are similar and some are not. In the case of social disorganization, anomie, differential association, and rational theories, there are many similarities as well as, subtle differences. The first theory to look at is social disorganization theory.The Social Disorganization Theory provides that if relationships in the family and friendship groupings are good, neighborhoods are stable and cohesive, and people have a sense of loyalty to the area, then social organization is sound. When these standards are lacking there is social disorganization. These theory list four key elements that constitute social disorganization. The first is low economic status. The second is a mix between different ethnic groups. The third is highly mobile residents moving in and out of the area. The fourth is disrupted families and broken rates (or epidemiology) of crime and delinquency. This theory explains much of the crime in inner cities. One great example of this can be seen in the case of James Darby. The theory also emphasizes the role of the community in the development of social norms and individual conduct. This theory explains the development of subcultures and how their values differ from those of mainstream society. This theory, however, does not explain criminals who grew up in communities like the suburbs or in extremely rich sections of towns and still commit crimes. This theory is extremely helpful in given possible ways of helping reduce crime rates (i.e. community outreach programs, neighborhood watches, etc). The basic tenant is the community taken a more active role in their community and its members. On a scale of 1-5, this theory rates a 4. While, it explains a portion of crime it does not explain all crime or give reduction techniques that have proven to reduce crime rates by a convincing number.The second theory to look at is Rational Theory. This theory hinges on the fact that humans have free will. The concept of humans having some extent of free will was assumed, but not explained in the classical school; it was embraced and uses to explain criminal behavior in the Rational Theory. This theory also took care to note that criminal behavior is the result of various factors. So, while humans have the right and free will to make choices they also are driven by their social environment. This theory emphasizes that individuals are motivated to commit crimes to reach commonplace needs. In order for a criminal to commit a crime they must believe that the benefit of the crime must outweigh the consequences of the crime. This theory also includes those crimes motivated by opportunity to commit a crime. They saw an "easy target" and acted. The fact still remains when they decided to attack the easy target the benefit of the crime outweighed the consequences. Many criminals can be explained by this theory, any criminal who has robbed a store to get money for their family or shoplifted in order to eat. This theory does...

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