This essay will analyse a contemporary Policy document policing in the 21st century: Reconnecting police and the people. It is a document presented by the secretary of state for the Home Department by Command for Her Majesty in July 2010. It will look at how some philosophies of punishment and models of criminal justice are convincing in explaining the methods and tactics used to formulate criminal justice policies as evidence in Policing in the 21st Century: Reconnecting police and the people. Other policy documents will be looked at in other to compare their similarities. Crime control, bureaucratic models the philosophy of deterrence and rehabilitation are convincing in explaining the politics of this policy document. Due process and the other models of criminal justice has had very little or no influence in writing of this policy. The argument will be that though crime control is the main function of the police, it is not the only function. There must always be a compromise between a Due process and crime control [Newburn, T. P .561]
Crime control and due process were models identified by Herbert Packer . The crime control model was designed to help the police. The key objective is crime fighting. Emphasis is placed on facilitating criminal investigation, questioning and pursuit of offenders. Less emphasis is placed on the rights of the suspects. The aim is the conviction of the guilty even if it means convicting a few innocent ones. Due process on the other hand, stresses on the defendants’ rights to fair trial. It presumes that the accused is innocent until proven guilty. The accused should be equal before the law. They should be limits on the powers of the police and other law enforcing agencies. The aim should be the acquittal of innocents even if it risks the acquittal of some guilty ones. [Newburn, T. P.561]. apart from packer’s two models of criminal justice, there are four other models that were identified my Michael King . There are the medical model, bureaucratic model, status passage model, and power model. The centre of the medical model is rehabilitation. It looks at crime as a disease that needs to be diagnosed, treated and cured. The bureaucratic model has as a social function of the management of crime and criminals, status passage model aims at denunciation and degradation. That is, public shaming of defendants. While the social function of power model is the maintenance of class domination. [Davies et al P24]. Davies et al added two other models namely the Just deserts and managing offender behaviour model. The just deserts model has as a social function of retribution while managing offender model,s function is “blending rehabilitative practice with surveillance and control”. [Davies et al p27].
Crime control model has had a big influence on the thinking of this policy document. There has been a lot of inspiration from Robert Peel’s principle of policing. His principle of...