Crisis situations are usually sudden, unexpected, life-threatening time-restricted incidents that may overpower a person’s ability to react adaptively. During these critical incidents, the extreme events may contribute to individual crises, traumatic stress, and even Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Generally, a crisis can be described as an incident that occurs when people are confronted with issues or problems that cannot be solved. The irresolvable incidents contribute to an increase in anxiety, tension, inability to operate for extended periods, and a successive state of emotional unrest. In the past few years, there have been various major events that have impacted the development and growth of crisis intervention. Some of these major events have occurred in the past 30 years and contributed to the evolution of crisis intervention.
Definition of a Crisis:
As previously mentioned, a crisis can be described as an incident that occurs when people are confronted with problems or situations that cannot be solved. These problems or situation are usually accompanied by emotional unrest, anxiety, tension, and seeming inability to function effectively (Dass-Brailsford, 2007, p.94). In other cases, a crisis is defined as an incident or event considered as unbearably difficult that is beyond a person’s available resources and coping techniques. This period is characterized by a period of psychological disequilibrium, which cannot be resolved using common coping mechanisms.
Generally, crisis events have various characteristics including perception of the event precipitating the incident as threatening, seeming difficulty to change and lessen the effect of stressful conditions, and increased tension, fear and confusion. The other characteristics are high level of biased discomfort and rapid shift to an active crisis state from a state of discomfort. Some of the most common examples of crises include death or loss of a loved one, unemployment, natural disasters, financial challenges, physical illness, an accident, unexpected pregnancy, and divorce or separation.
Development of Crisis Intervention:
Crisis intervention can basically be defined as the provision of emergency psychological attention and care to people affected by sudden, stressful situations. The main goal of crisis intervention is to help victims of such circumstances to return to adaptive levels of operation and lessen or prevent probable negative effect of psychological trauma from the incident. Crisis intervention primarily provides opportunities for such individuals to learn new coping methodologies through identifying, organizing, and improving the existing coping mechanisms.
Crisis intervention has mainly developed from disaster response and military literature or narrative in the early 20th Century. This mechanism commences immediately in attempts to restore traumatized individuals to normal operating levels in order to stabilize them and help...