Critical Care Essay

2643 words - 11 pages

This assignment will explain the pathophysiology of the disease process of peripheral vascular disease (PVD). It will examine how this disease affects an individual looking at the biological, psychological and social aspects. It will accomplish this by referring to a patient who was admitted to a surgical ward to have a below knee amputation. Furthermore with assistance of Gibbs model of reflection (1998), it will demonstrate how the student reflected on the experience of looking after this patient. In accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery Council, (NMC) Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2005) regarding safeguarding patient information no names or places will be divulged. Therefore throughout the assignment the patient will be referred to as Ron. Ron is a 42 year old gentleman and was a roofer by trade, he was fit and active until two years ago when he developed pain in his right leg, Ron was admitted for further investigations, which confirmed he had peripheral vascular disease (PVD), which was now described as critical limb ischaemia. Clancy and McVickar (1995) define critical Limb Ischaemia or CLI is as severe obstruction of the arteries which seriously decreases blood flow to the extremities (hands, feet and legs) and has progressed to the point of severe pain and even skin ulcers or sores.Ron is married and lives in a council house, with his wife and two children aged 14 and 16, his wife works full time, and his children are both in full time education, He now claims incapacity benefit due to the severity of his illness. Ron had been a smoker for twenty five years and admitted that his diet was poor due to fast foods.Blood vessels are channels, arteries, veins and capillaries, which carry blood to or from all tissues. Arteries carry blood away from the heart, veins return blood to the heart. Capillaries are thin-walled blood vessels in which gas, nutrient, waste exchange occurs (Watson's 2006).There are two circulatory circuits. Pulmonary circulation, involving the right side of the heart, delivers blood to and from the lungs. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs, where oxygenation and carbon-dioxide removal occur. Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left side of the heart. Systemic circulation, driven by the left side of the heart, carries blood to the rest of the body. Food products enter the system from the digestive organs into the portal vein. The liver and kidneys remove waste products. All systems ultimately return to the right side of the heart via the inferior and superior vena cava.Through the flow of blood in and out of arteries, and into the veins, and through the lymph nodes and into the lymph, the body is able to eliminate the products of cellular breakdown and bacterial invasion (Tortora & Grabowski 1999).Vascular System comprises of the blood vessels, arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries and veins run parallel throughout the...

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