Running head: Final Exam Paper
Final Exam Paper
Critical race theory is the work of legal scholars and activists who look at how race, class, and gender can shape institutions and the criminal justice system (Ugwudike, 2015, p. 221). Racial profiling is also a component of critical race theory. It is seen within communities that are over-policed, unfairly scrutinized and misrepresented within the criminal justice system. Racial profiling is a product of the stereotyping of racialized communities, that are often referred to as visible minorities. Racial profiling in Canada is not something new. The way police subculture is perceived and what actually happens within police subculture are key factors that contribute to racial profiling. This paper will highlight how certain racial groups are targeted when it comes to crimes, the way racial profiling has affected the war on terrorism in Canada and how the police subculture is perceived through media, and rebuilding the confidence in policing institutions between visible minorities.
In Canadian history, profiling has had a long and disappointing history, with impacts on surveillance, search, investigation, arrest, and incarceration rates for minority communities, that are singled out for their so called destructive behaviors. The tragic events of September 11, 2001 had impacts on racial profiling and have been felt more seriously by Canadians that are perceived to be Muslim. Policing institutions do not consider that racial profiling exists within the police forces, however, they claim that criminal profiling is a part of their occupation (Satzewich & Shaffir, 2009, p 219). There has been no proof that racial profiling is an effective policing strategy, it does not eliminate crime or terrorism. Citizens that are innocent are targeted, detained and interrogated solely because of the color of their skin (Nagra, February 28 2017, Lecture). When racial profiling occurs, it creates mistrust for law enforcement and the judicial system amongst members of minority groups, who are subjected to racial profiling, which thereby decreasing the chance cooperation between citizens and law enforcement when it comes to investigations.
Racial profiling can be used as a representation of risk in the policing of criminality and more recently, terrorism. Racial profiling can be a strategy of law enforcement or subtle and unconscious (Satzewich & Shaffir, 2009, p 200). Racial profiling includes focusing on specific groups or people inside a group for reconnaissance on the premise that the group itself is powerless against crime. After September 11th, this type of racial profiling was seen throughout Arab and Muslim communities as they were held under scrutiny as a potential risk to national security. Racial profiling involves the use of stereotypes. This form of racial profiling can also have an impact on police. It can lead police to misuse their power of authority with lethal consequences, but because there is a...