14. The challenges of sustainable development:
As said by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, indicators of overall sustainability—encompassing economic, environ-mental and institutional dimensions—show that African economies are less sustainable today than they were 25 years ago . At the end of 2000 more than half the population of the 38 countries assessed lived in economies with low overall sustainability. Some of the reasons for this low level of sustainability for Africa are as follows:
• Extreme poverty
• Environmental collision of extractive Rapid population growth
• speedy urbanization
15. Climatic changeability and natural environmental ...view middle of the document...
It is true to the valid needs and conditions of human beings and their environment. This tie is observed by J. R. Engel and J. G. Engel who allege that:
• Awareness of the fact that one cannot use with impunity the different categories of beings, animal, plants and natural elements simply as one wishes, according to one's (mere) economic needs. On the contrary, one must take into account the nature of each being and its mutual connection to an ordered system, which is precisely the cosmos.
(Engel and Engel 1990, 114)
16. Case study :
Pacific Fur Seal Arbitration case, 1893
This case is important here because of three reasons. It reflects the inherent difficulties in the conservation of natural resources which go down, wholly or partly, outside the jurisdiction of the single state. The Pacific Fur Seal Arbitration concerned the right of stats to adopt regulations to conserve fur seals in areas beyond national jurisdiction. It arose out of a dispute between the United States and the United Kingdom to be of the same opinion on international rules to protect fur seal fisheries in the Bering Sea from arbitrary demolition and extermination by over abuse. The United States had formerly proposed international arrangements to protect the seals by limiting the annual take based upon provisions of the 1882 North Sea fisheries convention. One of the important question of conservation , the arbitrators held by a common of five to two that the US had no ‘right of protection or property in the fur seals frequenting the ice lands of the United States in the Bering Sea, when such seals are found outside the ordinary three-mile limit.
The arbitrators adopted a Supplementary Declaration on fur- sealing within the territorial limits of each state which recommended that the critical condition of fur seals population required both governments to come to an understanding to prohibit any killing of fur seals, either on land or at sea, for a period of two or three years, or at least one year, subject to suitable exceptions. Neither government accepted the suggestion. The US argued that property rights entitled it to preserve the fur seals from destruction by the use of ‘such reasonable force as may be necessary’, even if it did not have property rights it had an interest in the ‘legitimate and proper use of the seal herd on its territory’ which it was entitled to protect against wanton destruction. US argued that no part of the high sea was open to individuals for the purpose of destroying national interest of such character. Moreover it argued that it alone possessed the power of preserving the seals and that it was acting as the trustee’ for the benefit of mankind and should be permitted to discharge their trust without hindrance.’ The...