Critically Discuss The Rationales Underpinning ‘Universal’ And ‘Selective’ Models Of Welfare Provision.

1032 words - 5 pages

The universal model of welfare provision provides services as a right of citizenship and provides to all or to at least categories of people, such as the elderly (Elliot 2003, p. 1). Whereas, the selective model of welfare provision involves establishing criteria and a process for means testing applicants to allow access to welfare (Elliot 2003, p. 1). The universal and selective models of welfare relate to institutional and residual welfare, the difference amongst the two is the former are the methods of welfare, whereas the latter are principles of welfare (Buckmaster, 2009). This essay will firstly identify and discuss the rationales underpinning universal and selective models of welfare ...view middle of the document...

This programme is provided through university qualified early childhood educators, with a strong focus on participation from the disadvantaged (Ayres 2011, p. 4). Each state government has applied strategies to ensure universal access to pre-school programmes across a variety of settings (Ayres 2011, p. 4).
The two examples demonstrate two policies that are implemented to provide individuals and society with universal healthcare and childhood education to further benefit society.
The selective model is defined as policies and practices that aim to only provide social assistance to a select group of people, who are considered most in need (Carson & Kerr 2014, p. 290). The assistance is provided on the basis of being income tested and a possible implementation of a mutual obligation (Hajkowicz & Mason 2013, p. 229). This correlates to the principle of a residual welfare system. This refers to where welfare is a precautionary buffer for those who are in need of assistance (Buckmaster, 2009). The selective model of welfare provision has proven favourable in most nations as it is cost effective, and through income and means testing admin employment is created (Buckmaster, 2009).
An example of the selective model in Australian society is Centrelink. Centrelink is a welfare provision of safety net income to those who are eligible (Hajkowicz & Mason 2013, p. 229). For example, if a student was to apply for a student based benefit. The student would have to fulfil the criteria to be eligible for the benefit and the student’s parent’s earnings would be income tested. If the parent’s income was above the financial criteria, the student would no longer be eligible for the benefit as their parents have the means to support them.
A second example demonstrating the mutual obligation aspect of the selective model is the Newstart allowance. Newstart allowance is targeted towards individuals who are unemployed and are in need of financial benefits while seeking employment (Carson & Kerr 2014, p. 185). For a person to continue to receive this benefit, a mutual obligation between the service and the applicant is enforced. To fulfil the mutual obligation, the individual must report to the service with evidence the individual is actively...

Find Another Essay On Critically discuss the rationales underpinning ‘universal’ and ‘selective’ models of welfare provision.

Comparing Welfare Provision in Germany and England

1704 words - 7 pages focusing on the extent to which this provision is provided. To understand the appropriacy and to discuss the extent of the provision it is helpful, firstly, to start with a brief definition of how these countries define a welfare state, and proceed with the different models that we encounter in Germany and in the UK. We continue with comparing and contrasting the extent of welfare provision in both countries. Since this is a

Critically discuss the effects of psychological and sociological variables on health and illness

2998 words - 12 pages Critically discuss the effects of psychological and sociological variables on health and illnessThe purpose of this essay is to look at health and illness, identifying the sociological and psychological variables which affect them. In order to explore this area, I will discuss the contribution of sociological and psychological variables, comparing their meaning and highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. I will also be discussing the link

Critically discuss how Egyptian pharaohs of this period (besides Hatshepsut) established and maintained the empire

3059 words - 12 pages New Kingdom Egypt to the Death of Thutmosis IV"Critically discuss how Egyptian pharaohs of this period (besides Hatshepsut) established and maintained the empire".Throughout time, leaders have been present in every society to establish, control and maintain the society wholly and completely. These include titles such as the Presidents, Prime Ministers, Monarchs and Dictators of today; to Napoleon Bonaparte, through to leaders of the medieval

discuss the social and medical models of disability - college diploma level - essay

1257 words - 6 pages Most of us engage in some form of interpersonal communication on a regular basis. How well we communicate with others is a measure of our interpersonal skills. Interpersonal communication is a key life skill and can be used to give and collect information, influence the attitudes and behaviour of others, form contacts and maintain relationships, express personal needs and understand the needs of others. It can also help to give and receive

The Emotions and Selective Perception

1457 words - 6 pages Another one of Aristotle’s philosophy was regarding the emotion and selective perception that summarized by B.R. Hergenhahn in History of Psychology’s text book (p.56- 57). Aristotle brought the awareness on emotion when he proposed that without emotion, humans could be missing on what is relevant (S.Nancy, 1989). He suggested that emotions influenced and intensified one’s behavior. For instance, people who are afraid tend to run faster after

Market failure in the provision of goods and services

606 words - 2 pages Market failure in the provision of goods and services refers to a situation where the market mechanism fails to provide Goods and services in sufficient quantities. As a result, the government feels they need to intervene and provide merit goods and services and public goods and services, as they are often under produced. The government also attempts to stop the production of de-merit goods and services as they are over produced. Some people

the model of selective optimisation

1395 words - 6 pages how the concept of successful aging was built. This expression can be paradoxical, because how the period of many diseases, loss of abilities and close people, and the feeling of sudden death can be associated with a positive achievement? Paul B. and Margaret M. Baltes constructively claim that, process of aging should not be acknowledged as phase of life of constant disappointments, but it has to be treated as a different, selective kind of

Critically evaluate biological and sociological theories and discuss how these contribute to the explanation for the occurrence of crime

4534 words - 18 pages MSc In Security & Risk ManagementMarch 2010 IntakeCritically evaluate biological and sociological theories and discuss how these contribute to the explanation for the occurrence of crime.4150 wordsAre criminals born or are criminals made? This is a question that many criminologists have researched into and tried and come to a conclusive answer. However the majority are divided into two main schools of thought; those believing in the nurture

Describe selective attention and discuss its functions, how it can be controlled and ways of investigating it

1155 words - 5 pages the analysis of shapes, colours or movements (Martin, et al., 2007). Different mechanisms serve to filter out irrelevant information and make us more responsive to particular stimuli. Ultimately, selective attention would sort out the information that should reach Short Term Memory and finally manipulate what is stored in Long-Term Memory (Elizabeth, 2005).We can control selective attention automatically while hearing a loud noise, through

The personality traits and private lives of politicians should have no bearing in democratic political discourse. Critically discuss.

1316 words - 6 pages The private lives and personal qualities of a politician should have no place in democratic political discourse as they offer no benefits. Langer, (2011), states that, “...issues and policies count a great deal” (Langer, 2011:3), in determining the success or failure of political leaders. A policy that will harm most of the electorate will not be favoured, no matter how ‘human’ the politician appears. Additionally it is not just a charming or

Critically discuss the role and importance of intenational commercial arbitration as an alternative dispute settlement mechanism in international trade today

3024 words - 12 pages to litigation as a form of dispute settlement, to place in perspective the role of international commercial arbitration as an alternative means of settling disputes in international commercial trade.The litigation process is rather complex and even when deciding where the case is to be heard can be problematic. Questions such as, whether the plaintiff's chosen court has jurisdiction, or which other courts also have jurisdiction need to be

Similar Essays

Rationales Underpinning The Universal And Selective State Model

1041 words - 5 pages Rationales underpinning: The justifications ought to additionally be logical, which implies they ought to be dependent upon examination as opposed to individual assessment and inclination or nursing custom. In our school of nursing, we oblige reference of hotspot for every logical justification for nursing intercessions. Conceivable hotspots for an experimental justification may incorporate a course reading material, proficient diary, address

Critically Discuss The View That 'universal Welfare Provision Can Only Ever Be Wasteful And Lead To Welfare Dependency'. Give Examples To Illustrate Your Points

2091 words - 8 pages Key Concepts in Social PolicySXP1004Critically discuss the view that 'Universal Welfare provision can only ever be wasteful and lead to welfare dependency'. Give examples to illustrate your points.For this assignment, in the hope of covering the above statement the writer will discuss what the word welfare means and how we came about in the 1940's to implement a modern welfare system. Also, the writer will look how the effects of the thatcher

Critically Evaluate And Discuss The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Customer Boycotts. Compare And Contrast Two Consumer Boycotts And Discuss Appropriate Microeconomic Theoretical Models

2588 words - 10 pages Microeconomics Coursework EssayCritically evaluate and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Customer Boycotts. Compare and contrast either Coca Cola or Bacardi with another consumer boycott of your choice and discuss appropriate microeconomic theoretical models.Firstly to understand this question we need to understand what a customer or consumer boycott actually is. Well it is normally called by an organisation or a group of individuals

Critically Discuss The Various Existing Models Linking Organizational/ Business Strategy With Hrm Strategy

1913 words - 8 pages strategy and HR policies. This essay will discuss the theory and models behind each perspective and provide a critique on each of the opposing views. Universalistic perspective This approach maintains that all firms will see performance gains by identifying and implementing best practice irrespective of the product market situation, industry or location of the firm. Performance gains include improvements in employee behaviours and attitudes