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Critically Examine The Reasons Why Development Ngo's Became Increasingly Popular With International Donors

1267 words - 6 pages

ODA is the acronym for Official Development Assistance, otherwise known as aid. Aid is defined as resources transferred on concessional terms with the promotion of economic and welfare of developing countries as the main objective. Theories behind aid and its impact upon development have been both complex and dynamic. In the early decades aid was generally given bilaterally from one government to another in various forms, usually money from donors was invested in large scale state run projects its aim to build infrastructure and fill in the gaps which were considered to constrain development. However by 1980's the criticism was directed at most forms of aid as it was argued it created a ...view middle of the document...

. With the obvious failures of many of the state led scheme's being emphasised many bilateral and multilateral agencies became less willing to transfer resources to Southern Governments. They came to be viewed as inefficient, corrupt and possibly oppressive. Furthermore throughout the 1980's there was a shift throughout the "developed" world of political thought. The collapse of communism at brought about different interpretations of which way development was to be dealt with. The Regan and Thatcher dynasties saw the emergence of neo liberalism, which viewed any kind of state regulation in the economy as interfering with the proper working of the market. This view of development not only prevailed in the industrialised North but also transcended into the main international agencies such as the World bank and IMF, and was therefore further reflected in how the "developing world" economies were managed and how aid was to be distributed.In the 1980's bilateral and multilateral aid agencies began to turn their attention to NGO's as an alternative way to promote international development. While the rise of NGO's has been commonly attributed to bottom up explanations, such as a more democratic states and the information revolution. The growth of telecommunication technology bringing down boundaries of activism can allow groups to organise and act internationally. However critics argue that the growth Development NGO's can be explained to some extent by the prevailing political climate. NGO's can be seen as filling the gaps of marketalisation, providing services to the poor but at the same time not compromising the theoretical standpoint of liberalism, although of course non government organisations are non profit.The end of the Cold War in 1989 also brought about changes in the distribution of aid, firstly with the threat of communism gone many countries which received aid in the past were no longer of strategic importance. Aid was more rationally distributed as a result. Secondly there was a wave of rhetoric about democratization. Non Government Organisations are generally considered people participatory and with their grass root links viable vehicles for democratization. It has been argued that NGO's command more legitimacy than governments although contempary academics are contending this furiously, arguing they are structurally undemocratic and unaccountable.Through the 1990's states which had ignored or even repressed the growth of NGO's came under pressure from the international community, to involve NGO's in the policy process as well as provide an environment conducive to their emergence and growth. In the 1980's and 90's a lot more funds became available for NGO projects as bilateral and multi lateral agencies began to encourage states to foster NGO's. Since the 1980's intergovernmental funded projects suggested the inclusion of NGO's in the planning...

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