Criticism Of Tsar Nicholas Modern History Essay

1451 words - 6 pages

Tsar Nicholas II was the most highly criticised rulers of Russia throughout the whole Romanov Dynasty, and this was due to his uncertain and waivable decisions. Many problems had arised from 1905 – 1914, and Tsar Nicholas had addressed them to some extent. Politically, many individuals were discontent with the government as majority of the population had no voice in the way the country was run. There were attempts to address these issues, including the introduction the October Manifesto. Social issues during this time included the side effects of industrialisation, leading to poor working/living conditions. With all the issues ascending in Russia, many revolutionary groups were founded to provide an alternative to the Tsarist regime. As well as these issues, economically Russia were not really helping their selves for the future, as much had spent on the Russo – Japanese War. Additionally, compared to many European nations at the time, Russia were poorly industrialised.
Tsar Nicholas II’s ruling of Russia was highly criticised due to the amount of arising problems, and due to this, many people believed it was time they had a voice in the way the nation was run, as if the people were to be happy, the nation would have been able to prosper. In September 1905, many unarmed protesters (consisting of peasants and proletariats) marched toward the Winter Palace behind Father Gapon, a proletariat Orthodox Priest. The intention of the protesters was to ask for better working/living conditions, with better pay and lower working hours. As they peacefully arrived toward the Winter Palace, Tsar Nicholas’ Imperial Guard soldiers opened fire on the protesters. 200 people were killed and 800 were injured as a result of the shooting. This day is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’, and Tsar Nicholas II’s title of ‘Little Father’ changed to ‘Nicholas the Bloody’. Shortly after Bloody Sunday, the Chief Minister released a document, known as the October Manifesto. This document stated new laws that allowed individuals in the lower classes to have more right and freedoms, such as freedom of speech, press and assembly. Along with this, a State Duma (national assembly) was promised to be introduced. The Duma was elected by the people of Russia, consisting of the people of Russia as the lower house of parliament and the representatives of the Tsar as the upper house. This meant that the lower classes of Russia could participate in the formulation of laws. The October Manifesto met with approval from reformists, such as liberals. The Duma’s allowed the citizens of Russia to believe that they had a voice in parliament. But unfortunately, this wasn’t the case. Before the first Duma was to be congregated, the Tsar passed a law that allowed the Tsar to veto any laws passed by the Duma. Many representatives argued for a constitutional monarchy or republic rather than an absolute monarchy. The Tsar saw this as ‘Anti-Tsarist’, and shut down the Duma after 42 days. As well as the failure...

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