Andrzejowski, J.; Hyle, J.; Eapen, G.; Turnbull, D. (2008), refers to review of literature of previous publications, such as the study by Vanni and colleagues. This study showed an notable effect of prewarming, but was flawed both by inadequate power (10 patients per group) and by having a control group that was significantly hypothermic before anesthetic induction. Two additional studies also showed a smaller decrease in core temperature during surgery after a period of prewarming, but neither study warmed patients intraoperatively A large randomized trial of prewarming, by Melling and colleagues involved more than 400 patients. Their study looked for differences in postoperative complications and showed a significant decrease in postoperative wound infections in patients who were prewarmed either locally or systemically. The authors suggested that prewarming improved peripheral circulation in the preoperative period, thus increasing tissue oxygenation (Andrzejowski, Hyle, Eapen & Turnbull, 2008).
Theoretical of Conceptual Framework
A theoretical framework was not clearly spelled out in this research article; however research on prewarming patients in the surgical setting can be easily based on the Neuman Systems Model. This model focuses on client assessment and response to environmental stressors which is consistent with the practice of prewarming surgical patients. In this model, human beings are described as systems that consciously and unconsciously create their environments both within and around themselves (Avlward, 2010). Prewarming patients is a primary prevention intervention in relation to the Neuman Systems Model. When patients arrive in the preoperative holding area, they usually are not hypothermic. If nurses apply forced-air warming before a patient experiences stress from being cold, then the lines of defense are not activated and an optimal state of health can be maintained.
The study consisted of seventy-six adults, ASA physical status I and II patients, who were undergoing general anaesthesia for elective spinal surgery, were sampled. The patients were grouped by using a computer-generated randomization: a prewarmed group and a nonprewarmed group. Of the 76 patients recruited, eight patients were excluded due to surgical cancellations. Data were therefore complete for 31 patients in the prewarmed group and 37 in the non-prewarmed group. Patient characteristics, operating room environmental temperatures, core temperatures at induction, duration of surgery, and infused fluid volumes were comparable between the groups. There was also no significant difference between the groups in the proportion of patients undergoing cervical or lumbar spine surgery, or in the ratio of male:female patients
Protection of Human Research Participants
When doing a controlled study you have to make sure you are not withholding treatment from anybody. In addition, it is the responsibility of the researcher to ensure the protection...