Cu3 Sn Intermetallic Growth Rate Retardation In The Sn 3.5 Ag 1.0 Cu Lead Free Solder With The Addition Of Small Amount Of Ni

714 words - 3 pages

Pb-Sn system was widely used in electronic industry because of their unique properties. However, being a heavy metal, it is toxic for human health [1]. Due to the environmental and health concern, WEEE and RoHS, have forbidden the using of lead in the electronic industry [2, 3]. Among many Pb-free solder, the Sn-Ag-Cu solder are the most promising candidate for its wettability and better mechanical properties and thermal resistance [4, 5]. The formation of intermetallic and its growth kinetics depends on the composition of the solders and how each of the solder components interacts with the substrate [6]. In order to improve the properties and microstructure of the solder, the addition of alloying elements such as Ni, Zn, Co, Sb, Al, Fe and Bi have been investigated [7-12].
The Sn-Ag-Cu solder system with the addition of Ni has become popular because of their superior soldering properties and low cost [13]. Nickel is commonly used to provide a diffusion barrier between Cu substrate and Sn-based solder alloy in order to suppress the formation Cu3Sn [7, 9]. Ni lowest reaction rate with an effective additive since it forms a stable phase in the Ni-Sn binary system [7, 14]. According to Tay et al, when Ni was added into solder, the growth rate of Cu3Sn was decreased from 29.8 × 10-19 m2s-1 into 2.50 × 10-19 m2s-1 [15].
The homogeneous distribution of alloying elements may play a part in solder properties. Therefore, the selection of processing techniques is important in order to get a homogeneous distribution of solder element. Powder metallurgy route is an alternative method to prepare solder material. It offers many advantages such as refine microstructure, near net shaping and greater materials utilization [16, 17, 25]. In this study, solder material was prepared using powder metallurgy techniques and particular emphasis was placed to correlate the effect of Ni addition to Sn-3.5Ag-1.0Cu on the growth kinetics of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallics.
2. Experimental Procedure
The materials used in this study were 99.8% trace metal basis of Sn powder, 99.9%...

Find Another Essay On Cu3Sn Intermetallic Growth Rate Retardation in the Sn-3.5Ag-1.0Cu Lead Free Solder with the addition of Small Amount of Ni

The Life of Zhen-Ni, Chaste- Virtuous

2666 words - 11 pages piercing SCREAM-this time from her sister…Zhen-Ni froze. Her eleven year old fragile body wanted to run to see if everything was alright but her legs wouldn’t give. Her head hurt in the rush of blood pounding against her skull, her stomach rolled as the acid elevated from her gut hooked to the pipe and into her mouth, her eyes burned with searing tears trickling down her youthful face. She didn’t dare make a sound. She

The theme of masks, tweflth ni

1011 words - 4 pages Have you ever worn a mask before? Maybe the mask wasn't a costume mask, but it was a mask to make you seem happy, or seem cool, or anything that made you feel like something than you are not normally. Chances are you have. Trying to fit in with the crowd, a mask is used to obtain the things we cannot reach on our own. Masks are especially common today because of the pressures to belong to the "in" group, or the pressures to succeed. Books, using

Investigating the effect that temperature has on the rate of reaction and therefore the amount of oxygen produced

3269 words - 13 pages Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide2H2O O + 2H2OPlanningAim:Our aim is to investigate the effect that temperature has on the rate of reaction and the amount of oxygen that is produced.Prediction:With reference to my theory, I predict that the initial rate of reaction will increase with the temperature rise up to 50°C where the enzyme used and released by the yeast will become denatured and wont function normally, reducing the initial rate of

The History of the Sign for Addition

1168 words - 5 pages Nicole Oresme’s, the author of the book” The Book of the Sky and the World” in 14th century. She uses the + plus sign as a shorthand for the word “et”. In the early 15th century, Europe generally uses letters “P” with symbol (P with line p̄) for più indicating plus. A book published by Henricus Grammateus in 1518 also makes another early use of + sign for addition. Robert Recorde who is the designer of the equals’ signs, also introduces plus sign

The Population Growth Rate In India

1428 words - 6 pages rate of population growth is not incompatible with a dangerous population increase in a country like India which has so huge a population base to begin with. Nevertheless, the most recent signs do offer some occasion for adopting a certain degree of cautious optimism in regard to the problem.      One important factor which is responsible for viewing the future with more optimism than may previously have been the case has

A literature review on how will the amount of melatonin affect the activity rate on tenebrio monitor

1508 words - 6 pages might worsen symptoms in some people.Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...Epilepsy. There is some evidence that melatonin at bedtime may reduce the number and length of seizures in children with epilepsy. But melatonin should be used cautiously, because melatonin may increase the number of seizures in some people.Menopausal symptoms. Limited research suggests that melatonin does not relieve menopausal symptoms. However, melatonin in

The Hazards of Lead

1771 words - 7 pages , lead definitely deserves a closer look. The use of lead throughout human history, from its discovery in Turkey some 8,000 years ago, is a story that could fill many book volumes. And from the earliest beginning of its use, it has been strongly associated with human suffering. Many have speculated that the Roman Empire fell in part due to the influences of lead poisoning largely because its wide use in items including face powder, paint, birth

What affect the substrate has on the rate of reaction with the enzyme in potato?

946 words - 4 pages Enzyme InvestigationTaskTo find out what affect the substrate has on the rate of reaction with the enzyme in potato.Variables1. PH2. Temperature3. Concentration of substrate4. Concentration of enzyme5. Surface area of potato lumps6. TimeKey VariablesInput variables - concentration of substrateOutput variable - volume of gasPredictionI think that to start with, the higher the concentration of the

Explain the main factors that influence the rate of economic growth

477 words - 2 pages Explain the main factors that influence the rate of economic growth Economic growth will be different in M.E.D.Cs than it will be in L.E.D.Cs. The reason for this is that M.E.D.Cs are already developed and vast improvement may not be possible but in L.E.D.Cs they have a long way to catch up so it is easier for them to expand vastly. Economies like China and India have potential for vast economic growth because of a huge population. If

The Addition of Using Video Games on Teenagers

695 words - 3 pages they prefer to sitting at home and played with their friends more than their family members. In addition I asked about the best type of games, and the most people prefer to play adventure games 57%. Followed by action type of game, it has 26% players .The one thing that is attracted players for game is challenging and enthusiasm to complete turn until the end. The questions that survey raises are the following: 1- What is the bad influence of

causes of mental retardation

702 words - 3 pages occurs with adaptive behaviour weakness of children such as communication skills, self-management, social and psychomotor. As I understand their mental age is not equal to their actual age. In the United States, children are mentally retarded intelligence test performance under 70. Level of mental retardation is divided into three. First, mild (69-55), second moderate (54-40), third severe (39-25), and forth profound (under 25). Jean Marc Gaspard

Similar Essays

The Small Amount Of Opposition To The Henrician Reformation

2110 words - 8 pages The Small Amount of Opposition to the Henrician Reformation The Henrician reformation brought many changes to the religious and secular ways of life in England. It stripped the nation of many of its traditional Catholic ways and forced new and unheard of customs into its religious life. The monasteries were dissolved deceitfully and effectively and a once cherished tradition was brought to an abrupt end. Henry agreed to

The Addition Of Ramps Essay

258 words - 2 pages would-be connoisseurs at bay. It's pungent and can linger for days.The smell oozes out of the pores of sweaty folk. In years past, schoolchildren who gorged on the spring veggies were often excused from classes for several days. "You can imagine in a one-room classroom--especially with little boys getting overheated--and what that smelled like," as Archaeologists have said.Ramps are native to eastern North American mountains. The plants are found in

How Light Intensity Affects The Rate Of Photosynthesis. (Measured By The Amount Of Bubbles Produced In 2 Minuets)

2931 words - 12 pages Planning 6/6Analasis 6/8Implementation 6/8Evaluation 4/6NOTE:PICTURES AND DIAGRAMS FROM THE ORIGONAL ESSAY WILL NOT APPEAR SO THERE MAY BE UNXPLAINED GAPSHow light intensity affects the rate of photosynthesis.(Measured by the amount of bubbles produced in 2 minuets)Scientific Knowledge and UnderstandingCanadian pondweedThis is the pond weed we will be using. It is North American and widely naturalized in EuropePhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis - The

Does The Amount Of Exercise Have An Effect On The Pulse Rate?

1287 words - 5 pages can clearly see the trend in not only my graph but in the graphs of everybody in my group. The line of best fit is roughly at a 45 degree angle in all four graphs, showing that the pulse rate increases with the increased amount of exercise.My findings support my original prediction because I thought that the more exercise that is carried out, will increase the pulse rate; and my findings showed that the more exercise we did, the faster the pulse