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Cuban Liberation Struggle Based On Ada Ferrer's Insurgent Cuba

1213 words - 5 pages

"With the U.S. domination of Cuba, race discrimination, which should have been wiped out forever by the blood shed in common on the field of battle... became especially acute. In the parks of many cities one could observe the disgraceful sight of blacks and whites segregated in separate areas. Many educational, economic, cultural and recreational establishments were barred to black citizens, who were denied the right to study, work, and enjoy culture, and what is more important, human dignity."What is said above by Fidel Castro in 1975 reflects the 19th century Cuban society. Though racism was a much worse issue in that time in the society, race still is a part of Cuban liberation and since then the imperialists have changed from Europeans to Americans. Ada Ferrer talks of the 30 year long Cuban struggle over the nature of their relationship to the Spanish colonials. This struggle against the Spaniards also reveals the conflicts and tensions within the Cuban independence movement which was necessary to overcome to assume unity and achieve victory.The war was an unprecedented movement that unified the black, mulatto and white individuals who for 30 years carried on an implacable struggle for freedom and independence in the last stronghold of Spain's empire in Latin America. Despite of being an unrevolutionary society, Cubans fought their war of independence against the Spanish in the 19th century. Concept of a raceless nation was given rise during the war. The 1800s were a period of revolutionary battles, many of which began to raise the issue of race. It was also a time of massacres of the black population. The ten-year war that erupted in 1868 was begun by the act of freeing slaves, opening the way for a greater political role for blacks. The late 1880s also led to an increasing involvement of blacks in the struggle for independence, particularly the wars of independence 1895-98.The independence movement originated in eastern Cuba when Cespedes - a sugar planter, slave owner, poet and lawyer, released his own slaves and invited them to participate as citizens in the struggle for Cuban independence and liberation. Defying the racist and colonialist belief and understanding of that time, thousands of nonwhite as well as white men including sugar planters and slaves, artisans and professionals joined forces in the creation of an unusual liberation army. Although during its early stages the hierarchy of positions in the patriot army tended to reflect the social structure of the society wherein whites were the leaders and non-whites the subordinates, by the onset of the 1895 which was the third and final insurrection, its leadership was in the hands of the popular and widely respected mulatto Antonio Maceo. Many other black and mulatto officers also occupied important positions. Due to the close connections between racism and the political activism, the likely hood of a Cuban nation was not possible, as the Spanish claimed. But the war showed the...

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