Figure 2. Country scores (Source: The Hofstede Center, Countries)
Regarding to the given scores, Germany is almost the same in individualism, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance with the scores of 67, 66 and 65. However, it has low power distance with the score of 35. With high decentralization, direct and participative communication and low regard to control Germany is among the lower power distant countries. If to refer to Hofstede’s model we can conclude that subordinates usually expect to be consulted by the leader, which brings to the field the intrinsic reward of “feedback”. Hence, employees are supposedly will be de-motivated, if the organizational pyramid is long and broad ...view middle of the document...
UK scores the same as Germany on the dimensions of power distance and masculinity with accordingly 35 and 66. UK is among the countries which scored highest for IDV. The score of 89 shows that people prefer individual needs in decision making process. Personal achievements are more important than group ones for British. The lowest score for UK is 35 for uncertainty avoidance which represents its tolerance for diversity and chaos. Based on individualism dimension traits, it can be supposed that a British employee will be hard-working only if it is needed and will not have a strong need for rules. Weak UAI cultures are usually open to changes and more innovative (low UAI traits); however, it does not guarantee the free stream of creativity (Hofstede et al. 2005).
Norway has very diverse scores for four dimensions. During the research the study of Scandinavian countries revealed the fact that Denmark, Norway and Sweden are very low in masculinity dimension with the scores of 16, 8 and 5 (The Hofstede Center). In those countries careers include both genders and women has considerable share in professional jobs (Hofstede et al. 2005). The traits of MAS indicate that employees from Scandinavian countries adopt equally based rewards. Norway scores low(31) on power distance and average(50) on uncertainty avoidance. Norway’s PDI score is the factor of pragmatic relationship between supervisors and employees. Having the same status of office and manual work is an interesting feature of small power distance in Norway.
The exploration of Hungarian culture provides the idea that Hungary is individualistic society with masculinity and strong uncertainty avoidance. Employees prefer competitive environments in workplace and expect their managers to be more assertive. Workers can be motivated by security and esteem. With high score on UAI, Hungarian employees have need for formalization and punctuality. One of the main aspect must be underlined is “time is money” for Hungarian culture, therefore managers should be careful when setting deadlines.
The score of 51 on IDV indicates that Spain has half individualistic and half collectivistic culture. If to have a look to other countries analyzed above, it can be claimed that Spain is more collectivist than those countries. The neighbor of Spain, Portugal has also low score (27) on IDV. Interestingly, if we explore the Spanish speaking countries we can observe that almost all of those countries are collectivistic culture.
2. Culture and motivation
“To motivate employees, you must bring them into the family and treat them like respected members of it.” Akio Morita (Steers, 2010)
2.2. Managerial role in managing cultural diversity
The expansion of cultural diversity...