Cultural sensitive care
The classic definition for culture was proposed by Tylor (1871/1958) and still commonly cited: Culture is “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and many other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (p. 1). This definition focuses on attributes that are acquired through growing up or living in a particular society, rather than through biological inheritance (Kottak, 2002). In Giger and Davidhizar’s (1991) Model for transcultural care, culture was defined as a patterned behavioral response that develops over time as a result of imprinting the mind through social and religious structures and intellectual and artistic manifestations. Culture is also the result of acquired mechanisms that may have innate influences but are primarily affected by internal and external stimuli. This definition gives more illustration on the social and religious dimensions and identified that culture is shaped by values, beliefs, norms, and practices that are learned and transmitted by members of the same cultural group (Leininger, 1991). Leininger (1991) explained In her model of transcultural care that culture is focused on the total or holistic life ways of human beings, religion (spiritual), kinship, politico-legal, education, technology, language, environmental context, and worldview are all considered.
The importance of understanding patients’ culture was clearly articulated in Giger and Davidhizar’s (1991) work. They have indicated that culture guides our thinking, doing, and being and becomes patterned expressions of who we are and that cultural values guide actions and decision-making and facilitate self-worth and self-esteem.
The standards of transcultural nursing are based on Madeleine Leininger’s (1991, 1995, 1998a) cultural care theory and Josepha Campinha-Bacote’s (1998) culturally competent model of care as these frameworks were felt to be the most helpful in establishing a foundation for the standards.
Leininger (1988) defined nursing as a transcultural phenomenon requiring knowledge of different cultures to provide care that is congruent with the clients’ life ways, social structure, and environmental context. This definition from the founder of transcultural care would support applying a cultural sensitive nursing care in the clinical setting, and highly linked to her definition of transcultural nursing as a legitimate and formal area of study focused on culturally based care beliefs, values, and practices to help cultures or subcultures maintain or regain their health (wellbeing) and face disabilities or death in culturally congruent and beneficial caring ways (Leininger, 1970, 1978, 1995). Moreover Leininger summarized the process of applying transcultural care as providing care that fits with cultural beliefs and life ways. From a professional perspective, it refers to the use of emic (local cultural knowledge and...