Culture in the Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was the first civilization to develop in South Asia. This civilization developed around 2500 BC, similar to when the civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China were first established. Unlike the other civilizations the Indus Valley Civilization declined and disappeared around 1500 BC. The Indus Valley was located on the subcontinent of Asia or modern day Pakistan, great territory of western India, southeastern Afghanistan, most of east Balochistan, and Iran. The geography of the Indus Valley had great effects on its people. Various mountain ranges such as the Himalayas, in the east and west benefited protection from foreign and nomadic invaders. The people were not isolated because they used water ways to trade and deal with other civilizations.
The Indus Valley Civilization developed into two large areas which were located along the Ravi and Sutlej rivers. These two areas grew into major cities known as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. It was wise to create these two cities in similar form since they were the building blocks of the same civilization, but each city was ruled in different manners by its government. The Indus Valley Civilization is sometimes mentioned as the Harappan Civilization, because of a discovery made in the 1920's of the city Harappa. The two city states were advanced for their time period, compared to Egypt and Mesopotamia. The cities were divided into rectangular blocks, contained wide roads, and buildings were exactly one square mile. Public buildings and homes of upper class people were made of standard size bricks and windows were made from the mineral alabaster. At the edge of the each city, bricks were baked in large ovens from a mixture of stone and mud. The lower class people and slaves lived in huts made of mud and straw. The houses had brass pots for cooking, string cots for sleeping, and clay pots for storing water. A central fortress was located in the center of the cities which was used for an assembly hall and for storage. There was a large public well in the city used for religious reasons. Other similar smaller wells were used for washing clothes and public bathing. The baths were one type of construction that seemed advanced during this time period. The bricks were placed in a way that there were not gaps between for the water to escape. Also, there were sewer systems for bathing and sanitation.
The people of the Indus Valley Civilization were strong in mathematics and astronomy. They used a system of weights for their bathing projects, bathrooms, and toilets which had brick seats. Wastes emptied from bathroom pipes into a main drain, which lead to a sewer system. The weight system was used to measure the weight of gold along with other objects. The homes had windows, carefully measures and build straight walls. They developed the first chapters in geometry and algebra. The Indus people created the idea of...