Cyclone Essay

1474 words - 6 pages

I.INTRODUCTIONCyclone is a piece of equipment consisting of a vertical cylinder with a conical bottom with a tangential inlet near the top, and an outlet for removal of the separated fraction at the bottom of the cone (Mc Cabe et al, 1985 ). It utilizes centrifugal forces and low pressure caused by spinning motion to separate materials of differing density, size, and shape. It is a very useful piece of equipment for the removal from air streams of particles above 10 micrometer in diameter. The equipment is a settling chamber so arranged that the particle laden air spirals round the cylinder to create centrifugal forces which are created by the spinning stream. According to Perry and Chilton (1973), the centrifugal separating force or acceleration may range from five times gravity in very large diameter, low resistance cyclones to 2500 times gravity in very small, high resistance units. This forces heavier particles to the outer edges, while lighter particles remain in the carrier material. The heavier particles are removed from the separator via the lower opening. Lighter particles along with the carrier medium exit through the vortex finder located at the top of the separator.Hydrocyclones or hydroclones are cyclone separators for solid-liquid separation. They are used either as thickeners or classifiers.Cyclones are very popular because there are no moving parts that can wear out or break. With no moving parts involved and mainly consisting of a drum with a funnel on the bottom and inlet and exit ports, a cyclone separator is fairly simple to build and inexpensive. They also have the ability to operate in high temperatures and pressures.The flow stream enters the body of the separator tangentially through the inlet at the top (see Figure 6.1). The mixture of solids and fluid or vapor begins to swirl due to the circular design of the chamber and continues swirling as it begins to work its way down the funnel until it reaches the bottom. Materials that are denser than the carrier medium are separated from the stream during this downward flow and can be removed through the outlet at the bottom of the cone while the lighter and/or less dense particles as well as the gas or liquid medium exit through the top of the cyclone via the low pressure center.As the mixture is circulating down the funnel it creates a "whirlpool effect" in the middle of the cone. This causes a vortex in the center of the cone through which the lighter flow stream rises. As the fluid or vapor reaches the top of the vortex, it is passing by the difference in pressure through a tube that sticks down into the center of the funnel. This tube is called a vortex finder. This is needed so that the vortex fluid will not mix with the incoming mixture of fluid and pollutants. The cleaned fluid or vapor is then either expunged into the atmosphere or returned to the system for reuse.The two main types of cyclones are axial and tangential (Stern et al, 1973). They both operate on the same...

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