Cystic Hygrom Essay

2052 words - 8 pages

Cystic Hygroma can be caused by Turner syndrome which is a genetic condition in which a female does not have the usual pair of two X chromosomes. The normal amount of chromosomes in a human are 46. These chromosomes contains DNA and genes which are the bodies building blocks. The sex chromosomes determine whether the baby is a girl or boy. Females normally have two X chromosomes while males have one X and one Y chromosome. With Turner syndrome, cells are missing part or all of an X chromosome. This condition only occurs in females and most commonly they only have one X chromosome. Others may have two X chromosomes but one is not completely developed. Sometimes when there are two X chromosomes, but other cells have only one. There are possible symptoms found in infants such as, swollen hands and feet and also a wide or webbed neck. As the female gets older they show more characteristics such as the absents or incomplete development of puberty, broad and flat chested, drooping eyelids, dry eyes, and short heights. Females with Turner syndrome can have a normal live as long as they are carefully monitored by a doctor (MedlinePlus).
Cystic Hygroma can also be caused by Down syndrome. Down syndrome occurs when a chromosome have a partial or full extra copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material alters the development and causes characteristics of Down syndrome. Some common traits are low muscle tone, small structure, an upward slant to the eyes, and a single deep crease across the center of the palm. Although each person can have a unique quality and may posses these characteristics differently or not at all. “One in every 691 babies in the United States is born with Down syndrome, making Down syndrome the most common genetic condition. There are also three different types of Down syndrome, known as, Trisomy 21 (nondisjunction), mosaicism, and translocation. Trisomy 21 is a copy of one chromosome 21 instead of the usual two. This type accounts for 95% of cases. Mosaicism occurs when chromosome 21 takes place in one of the initial cell divisions after fertilization. When this happens there is a mixer of two cell types. This only accounts for 1% of all cases, although research has indicated that with this type of Down syndrome, there are fewer characteristics of Down syndrome than in other cases. Translocation accounts for the other 4% of Down syndrome cases. In this type of Down syndrome, part of chromosome 21breaks off during cell division and attaches to another chromosome. Down syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally, by screening tests and diagnostic tests, or at birth, by the presence of physical traits and by an analyst called a karyotype. A karyotype is done by a blood sample to examine the baby’s cells. By examining these tests the doctor can diagnose Down syndrome (National Down Syndrome Society).
Trisomy 18 is also a cause of Cystic Hygroma. Trisomy 18 is also known as Edwards syndrome. This syndrome is caused by an error in cell...

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