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Dante Alighieri Essay

2437 words - 10 pages

DANTE ALIGHIERI (1265 Firenze - 1321 sepolto nella chiesa di San Pier Maggiore a Ravenna)1)Vita.La sua attivita' poetica comincia dopo il 1290, mentre la sua attivita' pubblica dopo 1295, quando si iscrisse all'arte dei medici (per il legame che allora univa filosofia e medicina), appunto per poter partecipare alla vita pubblica. Ebbe vari incarichi e sedé piu' volte nei Consigli del Comune. Nel 1300, Firenze si divisero, all'interno del gruppo guelfo, in due fazioni: una capeggiata da Corso Donati (i Neri), l'alltra diretta dalla famiglia dei Cerchi (i Bianchi). Dante fu vicino ai guelfi bianchi, che intendevano mantenere integri gli ordinamenti comunali e si opponevano tanto all'ingerenza del papa Bonifacio VIII nelle faccende della citta' e della Toscana, quanto alla trasformazione di Firenze in una signoria larvata. Nelle vicende tumultuose che impegnarono Firenze dal 1300-1301, Dante ebbe una parte di rilievo (tra l'altro, sancì la condanna al confino dei capi dei due partiti - fra i quali anche di Cavalcanti; ando' a Roma come membro di un'ambasceria a Bonifacio VIII). Nel 1302 fu condannato al confino per 2 anni, all'esclusione dagli uffici pubblici, a una multa. L'accusa non era solo politica, ma anche di baratteria, per infamare l'avversario sconfitto. Non essendosi presentato, la pena fu comutata in quella capitale: così comincio' il suo lungo esilio. Cerco' ospitalita' presso citta' e signori: a Verona fu ospite di Bartolomeo della Scala fino al 1306). Con la discesa in Italia di Arrigo VII di Lussemburgo Dante spero' possibile il ritorno in patria, ma con la morte dell'imperatore nel 1313 morirono anche queste speranze. Nel 1315 il Comune di Firenze lo condanno' a morte insieme ai suoi figli. Di nuovo oa Verona, presso Can Grande della Scala a Verona, poi a lungo a Ravenna, a Bologna - dove gli fu offerto l'alloro poetico che Dante rifiuto' sognando l'alloro a Firenze, finalmente riconciliata con lui.2)La Vita nuova (1292-1293), in un certo senso, romanzo d'amore: versi (sonetti e canzoni) sono seguiti da spiegazioni in prosa, sul modello delle razos provenzali. Le liriche ivi incluse sono quelle che meglio si addattavano allo schema proposto. Sono trascelte tra quelle composte dal 1283 in poi, per varie donne prima, e per Beatrice dopo. La storia di questo romanzo e' la storia dell'interiorizzazione progressva dell'amore di Dante per Beatrice (Bice, figlia di Folco Poltrinari, sposata con un Simone dei Bardi): a 9 anni la incontra, a 18 la rivede e compone per lei una prima lirica. Nel timore che si possa identificare la donna amata, il che era contro le leggi dell'amore cortese - finge di corteggiare due altre donne (''donne dello schernmo''). Quando Beatrice, ferita da questo contegno gli rifiuta il saluto, decide di dedicare la propria opera solo alla lauda di lei, nei modi del dolce stil nuovo. La sua poesia così diventa sempre di piu' incentrata in una adorazione commossa della donna e in un affetto...

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