Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy Essay

1714 words - 7 pages

Dante Alighieri 1265-1321Dante nacque a Firenze nel 1265 da una famiglia della piccola nobiltà guelfa.Non si hanno notizie certe della sua prima formazione, ma nel XV canto dell'Inferno presenta Brunetto Latini come suo maestro, da cui potrebbe aver appreso la retorica (arte del saper parlare e dello scrivere elegante).Presto iniziò anche a mostrare interesse per la poesia; nella Vita Nova, lui stesso afferma di aver imparato da sé, «l'arte di dire parola per rima» leggendo i poeti provenzali, i siciliani, Guittone, Guinizzelli e Cavalcanti.La sua esperienza intellettuale e sentimentale di questi anni ruota intorno alla figura di una donna, Beatrice, e la sua morte nel 1290 segna per Dante un periodo di smarrimento, ma costituisce anche lo stimolo per uscire dal mondo chiuso dello stilnovismo per ampliare i suoi orizzonti.Per trovare conforto al dolore per la morte della «gentilissima», si dedica agli studi filosofici e dei poeti latini, in particolare Virgilio, che considera il suo maestro.Nel 1300 venne eletto tra i Priori, la suprema magistratura cittadina.Il comune fiorentino era lacerato fra le fazioni di Guelfi bianchi e neri, ed era minacciato nella sua autonomia dalle manovre di Bonifacio VIII che, approfittando del fatto che gli imperatori di Germani si disinteressavano dell'Italia, voleva imporre il dominio della Chiesa sulla Toscana.Dante cercò di ristabilire la concordia tra i cittadini, ma pur essendo sopra le parti, era più vicino ai bianchi, che difendevano la libertà di Firenze, mentre i neri appoggiavano la politica del Papa.Carlo di Valois, legato pontificio fu inviato per fare da paciere tra le due fazioni, ma favorì i neri, i quali nel 1301 si impadronirono di Firenze e perseguirono la parte sconfitta.Dante in quel momento non si trovava a Firenze, e apprese la notizia di essere stato esiliato con l'accusa di baratteria, ovvero la corruzione nell'esercizio delle cariche pubbliche.Dopo non essersi presentato per discolparsi, venne condannato al rogo.Cominciò così l'esperienza dell'esilio; nei primi tempi Dante non rinunciò alla speranza di tornare in patria, e si unì agli altri esuli bianchi; con loro cercò di rientrare a Firenze con la forza, ma non ebbe successo.Iniziò il suo pellegrinaggio per varie regioni italiane, la sua funzione era quella di uomo di uomo di corte presso signori magnanimi , che ospitavano uomini di cultura per ricavarne lustro e prestigio.Vedendo le città italiane lacerate da lotte civili, e la chiesa corrotta, si convinse che servisse un imperatore che si ponesse come supremo regolatore, facendo rispettare le leggi e obbligando così la chiesa a tornare alla sua missione spirituale.Dante si convinse di essere di essere stato scelto da Dio per indicare all'umanità le cause della sua abiezione, e quindi condurla sulla via del riscatto; da questa vocazione nacque il disegno...

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