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Daphnia Bioassay Essay

4658 words - 19 pages

PlanThe initial variable to be considered will be the effect that caffeine and temperature has on the heart beat and if it has a direct or indirect effect on the daphnia's lifespan. If there is enough time to consider a second variable however, the effects of a temperature or alcohol on the daphnia's body system will also be considered alongside the initial variable of caffeine. These will then be slotted into the same graph which will show us how the figure correspond to the results.In order to conduct a true experiment the following questions must be considered and answered and only then can acurate conclusion be drawn.· How variable is the heart rate in an individual Daphnia?· How does the drug caffeine affect the daphnia's heart beat?· At what concentration is the heart rate slowest? The fastest?· What indication in the graph is the optimum concentration for heart rate of Daphnia?· What is the significance of the shape of the graph line when the data is plotted?· · What would happen if you increased the temperature in 5C increments (if time is available)?· What would happen if alcohol was added into the solution and why would this affect the daphnia's heart rate and general behavior.To fully understand the way the daphnia works one must examine its body and the uses for the different parts of it:- (fig.1)[1] - Second antenna, used for swimming and sensing the environment[2] - eye controlled by muscles with nerve connections to the brain[3] - legs used for gathering food stabilizing the animal as it slowly sinks[4] - An intestine where ground up food particles are digested[5] - A brood pouch for incubating young that hatch from large yolk filled eggs [6] - A protective outer shell [7] - A heartthat pushes clear circulatory fluid around the body[8] - Undigested material is eliminated out the anus.As it is now seen that the daphnia incorporates its food through the use of its legs it could explain why the drugs such as alcohol or caffeine take somewhat longer to enter its brain and alter its bodily functions-also its body acts as a form of a semi-permeable barrier of which small molecules (such as caffeine 'C8H10O2N4H20') can penetrate the walls of its internal organs, this is why it penetrates the whole of the daphnia's body at once (see 'prediction' for information relating to this fact).If temperature is to be used as a chosen variable, it must be considered that daphnia are cold-blooded animals, they do not thermoregulate. This means that their body temperature is the same as the water they are floating in. The chemical reactions that occur in the cells of Daphnia are dependent on certain enzymes, or proteins, to help the reactions proceed. As you increased the temperature of the water, the metabolism of the Daphnia increased as well, because chemical reactions occur faster at higher temperatures. This means that the heart rate will speed up in order to provide oxygen to the cells as...

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