2.4 Data Analysis Procedures
Data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure and meaning to the mass of collected data. It is described as messy, ambiguous, time-consuming, creative, and fascinating process but does not proceed in a linear fashion (Marshall and Rossman 1989, p. 112).
Data in this study will be analysed using a qualitative content analysis procedure. Hsieh and Shannon (2005, p. 1278) defined qualitative content analysis as a research method for subjective interpretation of the content of text data through systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns. Based on the procedure suggested by Zhang and Wildemuth (2009), the first step is to prepare the data by transforming the narratives of union leaders and activists involved into written text for analysis. The narratives are transcribed literally with audible behaviours would also be transcribed. Individual themes would act as the unit of analysis. Individual theme could be a single word, a phrase, a sentence, a paragraph or the entire document. Next, the researcher develops categories and a coding scheme for the categories that were developed. Categories can be derived from reading of the literature, theories or the data itself. For instance, the researcher can develop categories for the data that fall under “collective interest” and coded it as “COI” or data that fall under “attribution” and coded it as “ATTRI”. A consistency check of the coding scheme is then conducted by testing it on a sample of the data. When sufficient consistency is achieved, the researcher will then code the entire text. A recheck of the consistency of coding is again conducted. Finally, based on the coded data and themes, the researcher can draw conclusion where narrative descriptions is constructed. At this stage of the analysis, the researcher is trying to make sense of the themes or categories identifies and their properties. A visual display such as boxes, hierarchical tree or comparison table/matrix of the findings can be constructed to present the construction of the meanings. The drawing of the conclusions involved exploring properties and dimensions of the themes/categories, identifying their relationships and patterns and testing the categories against full range of data.
2.5 Methods for Verification
In this section the author will discuss briefly on the issues of validity and reliability of my proposed research. Most qualitative researchers accept the principles of validity and reliability. However the use of the terms is infrequent and there is no single stance or consensus on addressing validity and reliability in qualitative studies (Creswell 1994, Neuman 2003). Hence there is no excuse not...