The World Health Organization (WHO) describes diarrheal disease as the second leading cause of mortality in children under five years old, accounting for around 760000 deaths of children every year (Lweendo, 2010). Diarrhea is usually transmitted through the faecal-oral route. From the public health perspectives, contact with human excreta due to improper faecal disposal, poor hygiene in terms of hand washing to mention a few are the most potential risk factors. It has been documented that diarrhea causes of malnutrition in children under- five years. Diarrheal disease causes loss of water and salt in the body and can lead to death. This disease is very dangerous for children under –five years
Nigeria is one the countries with high child death rate in the world. In the year 2010 for example, under-five mortality rate was 157/1000 live births and child mortality rate was 75/1000 live births (DHS, 2010). Diarrhea accounts for 19% of all childhood mortality in Nigeria.
This essay intends to discuss the reduction of diarrheal diseases in under-five children in Lagos, Nigeria. The essay will dwell to assess the epidemiological issues, including locally initiated data search, ƒthe chosen interventions and the implementation strategies to avert under-five children mortality caused by diarrheal diseases.
Assessing the problem with epidemiological perspective
Lagos is one the populace city in Nigeria with about 17.5 million people. The city stands to be the Africa’s second fastest-growing city and the seventh in the world. Access to safe water is one of challenge facing the habitats in Lagos , whereby only 58.9% have access to safe water. It is estimated that 51.6% have access to improved sanitation and 60%-70% lives in slums. Less than 5% of households in the city have piped water connections. Climatically, Lagos experiences two major seasons (rainy season between April and October and dry season between October and March). During the rainy season, the habitats suffer from floods due to poor drainage systems. In addition, about 40% of the land is wet. As it has been earlier pointed out, majority of people lives in slums. This situation poses a challenge of attaining Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of halving by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
Epidemiologically, diarrhea diseases are associated with poor hygiene in terms of hand washing (Lweendo, 2010). For example, the Cross-sectional study that was conducted among the Lagos community revealed that only 46% washed their hands before eating. In the same study it was revealed that 3.6% washed their hands after cleaning a defecated child and 0.3% after cleaning running nose (International Journal of Infection Control 2013).
Poverty influences the state of hygiene and sanitation and vice versa (Lweendo, 2010). In Lagos alone, it is reported that children who lives in poorest socioeconomic strata have lower...