# Deforestation Rate In Southeast Asia Essay

1544 words - 6 pages

Estimation of population density or abundance of arboreal primates such as Hylobates agilis is generally difficult due to their highly mobile nature and accessibility to sampling area can be very difficult. Conventional methods such as distance sampling or mark- recapture method requires big amount of effort, funding and man power. Alternatively, presence-absence method can be used which is relatively easy, less costly and requires lesser personnel The presence-absence method used in this study is one of the approach developed for estimating occupancy of single species within single season(MacKenzie, Nichols, Gideon, Droege, Royle and Langtimm, 2002).

Occupancy is the proportion of a randomly selected sampling unit in an area under study is occupied with interested species. Occupancy modeling allows us to estimate the probability that a sampling unit is occupied, given that species are imperfectly detected or in other words probability that a site is within a group of sites is occupied with species of interest. Occupancy model has wide range of applications such as species occurrence, range, distribution, habitat selection and wild life monitoring (MacKenzie et al, 2005).

In this, study we used single season single species occupancy model and carried out based on presence – absence data or detection –non detection data. In the single season model, populations are assumed to be closed no migration, birth of new individual, death take place during the period of study. If x and s represents the number of occupied sites and total number of surveyed site, then occupancy of particular species is:
Ψ=x/s
However, x count may be lower than expected due to absence of species in the occupied site which leads to false absence. Therefore multiple surveys are carried out to estimate the detection probability, giving us estimate of x Hence, an estimator of the proportion of sties occupied is:
ψ ̂=S_D/S_P
In other word, presence of species from the sites where the species was observed once, is used to estimate the probability of the sites where species is not detected. (MacKenzie et al, 2005).

The general model of single species, single season consists of two random processes which may affect the detection of of a species at a survey site. First, If a site is occupied then the probability is Ψ or may be unoccupied by the species with probability of 1- Ψ . Second, given that the location is occupied at each survey (j) there is probability of detecting the species (pj) and (1-pj) for probability of not detecting the species (MacKenzie et al, 2005).
L(ψ,p)= [ψ^(n.) ∏_(t=1)^T▒p_t^(n_t ) 〖(1-p_t)〗^(n.-n_t ) ]×[ψ∏_(t=1)^T▒〖(1-p_t )+(1-ψ〗]^(N-n.)
In the general model of single species single season, five assumption were made. Firstly, the occupancy state of the survey sites does not change during the period of study as we have already assumed earlier that it is closed population. Second, the probability of occupancy(Ψ) is equal across the sites....

## Find Another Essay On Deforestation Rate in Southeast Asia

### Dutch Colonization in Southeast Asia Essay

802 words - 4 pages The Dutch’s appearance in Southeast Asia was predominantly a two-stage colonization process. The initial stage of this expansion period arose in 1602 with the charter of the Dutch East India Company. The VOC (Dutch East India Trading Company) had been formed by the State-General of the Netherlands to carry out, for a granted 21-year monopolistic control, colonial expansion privileges representing the Dutch in South East Asia. While at first

### Medical Tourism in Southeast Asia Essay

1771 words - 7 pages has become a key economic strategy in these two countries. Malaysia and Thailand have also become main medical hubs in the region, attracting patients from within and outside Southeast Asia. The Birth of Medical Tourism Before the east Asian financial crisis in 1997-1998 was a time of economic growth in Southeast Asia. The middle class with high education attainment was expanding, living mainly in large cities. These people put significant

### Independence Struggles in Southeast Asia

2418 words - 10 pages which conceived of it as a stronghold against the increasing Soviet influence in Southeast Asia. In essence, this backing gave Indonesia a carte blanche and ensured it could do what it saw fit, like the incorporation of Papua. On the contrary, Indonesia in the late 1990s was a nation in distress, hit hard by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Suharto’s relative popular support that he maintained through emphasizing Indonesia’s strong economic

### The Legacy of Imperialism in Southeast Asia

1062 words - 4 pages The Legacy of Imperialism in Southeast Asia Imagine a tropical island paradise isolated from external influence or interference, with limited localized conflicts. Then a fleet of dark ships sail up to the golden beaches and land. These ships are filled with Europeans, who wish to take over this land for its strategic location and the plentiful natural resources that exist on the majestic lands of Southeast Asia. This straightforward scene

### Child Sex Trafficking in Southeast Asia

1608 words - 6 pages Child Sex Trafficking in Southeast Asia The world today faces many problems that are being combated by many organizations, yet there are broad ranges of challenges that are waiting to be fixed up but the efforts are not producing great results. One such problem human trafficking has been affecting many lives through years but through recent decades human trafficking both sexually and labor exploitation have risen drastically. Especially, in

### Child Sex Trafficking in Southeast Asia

1001 words - 4 pages In poverty stricken Southeast Asia, every day children become trapped into the prostitution industry. Strangers or even close family members and friends deceive children into sex trade. Once trapped, chances of escape are low. With the sex industry growing and thriving, countries in Southeast Asia continue to tolerate the retail of children for sex acts. The origin of the sex industry is not exact, but the demand for women sold as sex slaves

### Singapore an Island in Southeast Asia

1476 words - 6 pages , government structure, strategic importance, and the future direction of Singapore. Background Information Singapore is an island located in Southeast Asia, and founded by the British East India Company in 1819. Singapore started as a British colony, joined the Malaysian Federation, and became independent in 1963. The island has a population of approximately 4.7 million people, and is located at narrow point of the Straits of Malacca off

### Hinduism and Buddhism’s Influence of Indian Culture in Southeast Asia

2232 words - 9 pages The way Hinduism and Buddhism entered Southeast Asia was not the same, as well as when it entered and its influence of Indian culture that emerged into the area. Civilizations in Southeast Asia focused on an appreciation to nature, which resulted in a harmonious and equal relationship between man and nature. Southeast Asia had been depicted and known as the “golden island.” These Southeast Asian civilizations were characteristically composed

### The Spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia

1757 words - 7 pages and agricultural laborers, Shudras, who are artisans and other providers of service, then we get to the lowest caste, which are the Periahs, also known as the untouchables who cannot look other in the eye and take janitorial jobs and other jobs dealing with filth and death (Miksic, pg 6). Buddhism was adopted and adapted to in Southeast Asia in various different methods, starting with those of the Tibetans, who developed their own form of

### The December 26, 2004 Tsunami in Southeast Asia

1296 words - 5 pages On Sunday December 26, 2004 at 6:58:50 a.m. local time, the tsunami earthquake hit land in Southeast Asia and caused a massive amount of death and destruction. This 9.3 scale earthquake was the biggest and most dangerous to ever hit since the 9.5 scale earthquake on May 22,1960 in Chile. Earthquakes of this magnitude happen only every thirty to forty years. "Almost two months after the Indian Ocean tsunamis, which killed more than 250,000 people

### Cross-Cultural Interactions And Inter-Regional Trade In Southeast Asia

1060 words - 4 pages Doc 3, this picture of the AngKor Wat temple shows the spread of Buddhism to Cambodia, which lead to the creation of the temple. However, geography must also be taken into consideration. Korea is an example of the spread of religion to the north, and because Cambodia is in Southeast Asia, this document represents the spread of religion to the south. With these two Documents, it is easy to realize that the Chinese spread the religion of Buddhism

## Similar Essays

### Headhunting In Southeast Asia Essay

1199 words - 5 pages taken their first head. In Indonesia, Wona Kaka, a famous leader that led rebellions against the Dutch, an important headhunter, was recognized as a hero by the national government. There were even many rituals to bring back his soul from the dead. In Southeast Asia, the practices of headhunting have a relationship to the society’s perception of itself as a powerful agency. It was an important part of the society because they believed the human

### Migration In Southeast Asia Essay

1459 words - 6 pages Southeast Asia is certainly a region on the move. Internal and international migration flows are a key feature in this geographical setting. On the one hand, Southeast Asia is home of important work-related migration flows to other countries in the region which are demanding labour but also to international immigration areas, such as North America, the European Union and the Persian Gulf. On the other hand, Southeast Asia also attracts

### Imperialism In Southeast Asia Essay

1462 words - 6 pages Imperialism in Southeast Asia A. In the late 1400s & early 1500s, European traders explored the East Indies 1. In the seaports of these islands & on the nearby mainland a) Portuguese & Dutch merchants enjoyed a rich & active trade until the early 1800s. B. In the 1800s and early 1900s, European imperialism made its way to Southeast Asia as it did to nearby India & China 1. The area became an important source not only of

### Population Control In Southeast Asia Essay

545 words - 2 pages 'acceptable' whereas forth-two voted that it was 'unacceptable to some extent', and sixty-eight declared it to be 'highly unacceptable'. Furthermore, two-thirds of the countries wanted to slow the rate of rural-urban migration, and a further 12 per cent wanted to reverse it.Although we have a fairly clear picture of recent trends in population growth in most of the countries in Southeast Asia the picture is based primarily on data collected in censuses