Introduction to Parliamentary government:
In a democracy,governments are classified on the basis of relationship of the political executive with the legislative branch. If the executive is answerable and responsible to the legislature it is called Cabinet form of Government or Parliamentary form of government,while if the legislative and executive are completely seperate from each other it is called as presidential form of government. In the presidential form of government, there exists a very close relationship between the executive and the legislature. U.K is the traditional home of Parliamentary democracy,here (presently) Queen Elizabeth is the present nominal/ceremonial head of the state and the prime minister (presently) David Cameron is the head of the government.
Some main features of parliamentary government are:
Having a nominal head of the state as a president or monarch:
Under this form of government the head of the state is nominal or titular. The person holding the post may have great stature but he does not exercise his power independently although the administration of the state runs in his name and theoretically all the power belong to him under the constitution. His powers are exercised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Thus there exists dual executive in this system, the nominal and the real. The President in India or the king in England are the symbols of nominal head of the executive where as the Prime Minister is the real head of the executive.In India the president may perform vital and important activities like war&peace treaties which involve other countries,but he does not exercise his power much inside the country,in its legislature though he is the head of the state.
Close collaboration between the Executive and the legislature:
In this system the executive and the legislature are closely associated and they are interdependant. The members of the Council of Minister are also members of the legislature. In fact the Council of Ministers is drawn from legislature. The President Summons the legislature and gives his consent to the bills passed by the legislature to make them Acts. The bills passed by the legislature are in fact drafted and initiated by the Ministers. The President of India promulgates ordinance during the recess of the legislature. The ordinance has all the force and effect of law.While this may sometimes come in handy while taking decisions and stressing the general will of the people this may also become a serious demerit mainly because of the reason that it violates the principle of separation of powers which says that if at all powers are separated they should be given to independent bodies and they should not be combined while parliamentary system collaborates the executive and legislature while enforcing their powers.
Responsibility of the executive:
The executive in a Parliamentary system is responsible to the legislature for all its actions.Becuase of this it is...