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Democratization Theories Developed By Moore, Rueschemeyer, And Collier.

1423 words - 6 pages

Democracy defined by Britannica's on-line Encyclopedia is a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections Democratization is the process that it takes to reach democracy. We have made a lot of improvements and obtained and maintained some form of democracy. But From the readings and lectures, I have concluded that we are still in a state of democratization because, at least from my understanding, the ultimate goal of democracy is overall freedom, balance of powers, and equality for all, which surprisingly still has not been reached.In Barrington Moore's Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Landlord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World, he says "No Bourgeoisie, No Democracy." He examines the historical and contemporary causes of democratization and finds that there are three routes to democracy. One, the Puritan, French, the United States Revolutions, which are all examples of democratic capitalism, was a result of the bourgeoisie revolution. Two, reactionary capitalism, for example industry growth in Germany and Japan, produced fascism. Three, the peasant origins stemmed from communism in Russia and China. European medieval society's feudal beliefs influenced Western concepts of free society and focused mainly on class conflict and class coalition. This society believed that citizens had the right to resist unjust authority. It also believed that monarchial institutions in early centuries checked turbulence of nobility, which helped in the growth of democracy. There must be a balance between monarchy and nobility to prevent each one from getting too strong. For example if monarchy is too powerful then absolutism occurs. Moore agrees with Marxist thesis that town dwellers had been helpful in growth of parliamentary democracy. In Europe, the feudal system, which consists of a lord and peasants, helped political evolution depending on form of commercial agriculture. Moore's definition of bourgeoisie's role was that the strong class will set its own tone if there are positive conditions for democracy. Bourgeoisie must be dominant in order for democracy to occur.There are many criticisms on this perspective. Moore's claim for the need for bourgeoisie is too strong and he neglects the role of other nations in the democratizations process. Third world countries are influenced by other countries and factors. It neglects the role of student groups and only focuses on class. This theory also neglects interaction between the class coalitions and does not include the working class. The main focus of this theory was on the earlier stage of development when there were landlords and peasants. It does not explain the role of religion in democratization, which through Islamic countries we can conclude that religion does play a key role in the formation of a democracy. Moore does not consider the...

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