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Dental Decease: Amelogenesis Imperfecta Essay

1485 words - 6 pages

Amelogenesis Imperfecta can be described as a disorder that causes a rare abnormal formation of the enamel (Swootleg, 2007). The Enamel component of teeth is generally comprised of mineral, which is regulated by various proteins within the enamel matrix. People who are diagnosed with Amelogenesis Imperfecta have dentition with abnormal color yellow, brown or grey. There are three main types of amelogeneis imprefecta. They are: Hypocalcified Amelogenesis, persons afflicted with this type of amelogenesis have hypomineralization of crystallites which can be caused by defective crystallite nucleation and subsequent mineralization; in hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta due to apposition. Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta refers to defects in the crystallite formation during the maturing phase of development of enamel (C J. W., 1992). Hereditary and genetics has been known to be a common factor for the disease, which involves a number of allelic and non-allelic mutations. Molecular studies have identified that significant genetic heterogeneity within the X-linked forms have been determined (Lagerstrom, 1990).
Through other investigations it has shown that there are differences in the biochemical composition of enamel in the types of amelogenesis imperfecta. This includes the findings of abnormal protein content within the composition of enamel in Amelogenesis imperfecta teeth in comparison to normal enamel. (C. Witkop, 1976). The purpose of this experiment was to further investigate the enamel proteins in various types of amelogenesis imperfecta and to fully deduce if amelogenin was retained in the fully developed amelogenesis imperfect enamel. The primary Biochemical method used in this study was the SDS-Page Electrophoresis and results further analysed through the use of the Western Blot method. This was the preferred method as it allowed the experimenters to view the proteins clearly via electrophoresis and the western Blot method. Observations and measurements of differences between normal enamel and enamel of amelogenesis can be compared and visualized.
When used in Biochemistry, gel electrophoresis is a biochemical method for the separation and analysis of macromolecules such as proteins. It is used to separate proteins by charge. An electric field can be used to separate the nucleic acids or proteins to transfer the negatively charged molecules into a matrix of agarose or other constituents. This is mainly because smaller molecules are able to move quicker and migrate farther than longer ones because shorter molecules travel more easily through the pores of the gel. Proteins are divided by charge in agarose due to the pores of the gel that are too large to filter proteins. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), used to detach proteins and nucleic acids on the relative of size and charge. The sample is mixed with SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate. SDS is an anionic detergent that denatures non–disulfide–linked and secondary and...

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