Deoxyribonucleic Acid Essay

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Have you ever wondered what a human has in common with a tree and bacteria? The answer to that is DNA. DNA (also known as deoxyribonucleic acid) is a coding in the nucleus containing the genetic information. It contains information about growth and function. DNA is the molecular instructions of life. It makes anything living common because all living organisms have DNA. DNA come together and form chromosomes after a while. When the cell goes through cell division, the DNA is copied and passed onto the new cell. The DNA structure is very unique. When one strand is opened, it is 6 feet. Although it is 6 feet, it is coiled up tightly to fit one out of trillions of cells. Each cell has 2 meters in length of DNA. It is usually double stranded. A (Adenine) pairs with T (Thymine). C (Cytosine) pairs with G (Guanine). When cell division occurs, the DNA is double for both daughter cells. The two strands unwind, unzip and separate in search for a new strand to interact with and form a cell. Sometimes, an error can be made. That would be mutation, because the error would be repeated every time it goes through cell division. Mutations can be either harmful or beneficial.
All organisms start as one cell, but then divides into two, which again divides into two forever, even after growth stops. This is how organisms grow. It replaced faulty cells throughout the body. This is also how unicellular organisms reproduce. Cell division is also known as mitosis. Before mitosis can occur, the cell spends a long period of time in the phase called interphase. There it prepares to divide and has 46 chromosomes. Then mitosis begins. That is when the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei. The second step taken would be prophase. That is when chromosomes double. Thirdly, the phase called metaphase occurs. That is when chromosomes line up in the center of the cell. Fourthly, the process known as anaphase occurs. In the process, the chromosomes begin to separate and move to opposite sides. After that, telophase occurs. That is when a nucleus forms and the cytoplasm begins to separate. Finally, the process cytokinesis occurs. That is the last part to mitosis and two daughter cells are formed with 46 chromosomes each.
DNA is broken into sections called nucleotides. The nucleotide has three parts. They are phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and nitrogen-containing base. The four nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is read in two ways. One is the ladder method. The other is the...

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