Dermatophyte Fungi: Infections, Diagnosis And Treatment

1167 words - 5 pages

Tinea barbae, Tinea Faciei and Tinea incognito
Tinea barbae is a type of superficial mycosis which is seen in the bearded areas of face and neck in men. The infection involves the skin and the hairs (shafts and follicles) of mustache, beard and a part of neck area. Zoophilic dermatophytes such as T.verrucosum, T.mentagrophytes, M.canis, and T.tonsurans are the most common causative agent of Tinea barbae and anthropophilic dermatophytes like Trichophyton rubrum, are known as the second infectious agents of Tinea barbae. The clinical demonstrations of Tinea barbae include kerion, scaling, folliculitis, itching, burning, and inflammatory reactions (2, 8, 18-20).
Tinea faciei is seen in the same anatomic locations as well as in men, but this infection belongs to women and children. In another words, Tinea faciei is the pediatric and female form of Tinea barbae. Tinea barbae occurs in adult males while Tinea faciei involves neonates, children and women. Either Tinea barbae or Tinea faciei are low common in Iran. Sometimes, Tinea faciei occurs completely mild and its clinical appearance is not distinguishable. This type of dermatophytosis is named Tinea incognito. The most important risk factors of these groups of ring worms are low personal hygiene, moisture, contact with soil, contact with pets and contact with infected people (1, 2, 18-24).
Tinea capitis
Tinea capitis is known as the most considerable dermatophytosis between childish populations in Iran and worldwide. The infection involves scalp, hair shafts and hair follicles. Tinea capitis is the most occurred superficial dermatophyte infection in crowded urban societies. It is the predominant infection among young and school-age children. The etiological dermatophyte genera of Tinea capitis contain Trichophyton and Microsporum. T.violaceum, M.canis, T,verrucosum, T.mentagrophytes, T.interdigitale and T.tonsurans are the most common species isolated from patients with Tinea capitis in Iran and other countries (1, 2, 4, 20, 23, 25-38).
Tinea capitis is categorized into three main types of ectothrix, endothrix and favus. The ectothrix form of Tinea capitis is often recognized via the presence of arthroconidia on the outside of infected hair shafts; while the endothrix hair invasion form of Tinea capitis is distinguished by the presence of arthroconidia in the inner side of infected hair shafts. The hair infection of favus which is known as Tinea favosa is detectable by the presence of fungal mycelia of T.schoenleinii within infected hair shafts (2, 26, 34, 39).
Clinical signs of Tinea capitis include a wide range of demonstrations from asymptomatic, subtle and mild flaked scalp to severe broken infected hairs, inflamed patches, pustules, kerions and scutula on different areas of head. Tinea capitis with kerion lesions is known as Tinea profunda. Direct contacts of heads (especially in children), utilization of personal belongings of infected individuals, and low hygiene are the most reported risk...

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