Describe And Critically Evaluate The Psychoanalytical Approach

1176 words - 5 pages

Describe and Critically Evaluate the Psychoanalytical ApproachPlan:1.Introduction2.Methods and Discoveries3.Model of Personality4.Stages5.Therapies6.Criticisms, Evaluations and Research7.ConclusionThe psychoanalytical approach is a controversial doctrine based on the system of psychoanalysis developed by Sigmund Freud. Freud was primarily interested in investigating the unconscious mind through the study of dreams, mental illness and everyday slips of the tongue or actions. He conducted a series of in-depth studies of adult neurotic, which enabled him to devise his theory of human personality, a theory of psychosexual development and an explanation of the causes and treatment of neuroses.Freud was interested in neurotic mental illness and developed his own technique: free association, which became one of the fundamental tools of psychoanalysis. Freud's patients had to describe whatever came to mind- no matter how silly. They often revealed memories that had disturbed them in childhood a great deal and resulted in their neurotic behaviour. Quite often, the patients had difficulty recalling this childhood event. Freud, by use of free association would encourage them to remember the event from there past and so the patient could come to terms with it and hence recover from his neuroses. Another method was the interpretation of dreams in which Freud outlined his theory of the mind. A further discovery was transference, where the patient projects his feelings on to the therapist.Freud found that personality consisted of three structures; the Id, the Ego and the Super Ego .The Id is the unconscious mind - it follows the pleasure principle and it contains inherited instincts and primitive drives. The Ego or reality principle is developed from the Id and acts as a mediator between the instinctive demands of the Id and the outside world. The Ego stands for reason and good sense. The Super Ego acts as a control mechanism and it maintains the influence of parents, significant adults and teachers. All behaviour can be explained in terms of dynamic interaction between the Id, Ego and Super Ego. For example, a well-adjusted person is governed by his Ego, a psychopath by his Id and the anxious neurotic by his Super Ego.Freud believed that a child's early experiences in life influenced how their personality and sexual development proceed together. According to Freud two main instincts live in the Id: Eros, the love instinct and Thanatos, the death instinct. The energy of Eros is the libido, which enamates from the Id, attaching itself to different parts of the body during sexual development. The first stage is the Oral stage, which takes place between 0-18 months old where the libido fixates on the mouth and sexual pleasure is obtained through oral stimulation. The anal stage takes place between 8 months and 4 years and the libido fixates on the anal orifice, sexual pleasure is obtained through stimulation of the anal membrane. The next stage takes place between...

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