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Describe And Discuss Two Contributions Of Either Freud Or Rogers To The Development Of Psychology.

1330 words - 5 pages

Describe and discuss TWO contributions of eitherFreud or Rogers to the development of Psychology.Freud's work is described as psychoanalysis; it is the theory of personality, personality development including child development, moral development, defence mechanisms and theory of dreams. In this essay we will look at the psychosexual stages primarily the phallic stage. We will also look at Freud's theories on the structure of personality.Freud suggested that sexuality was not only confined to mature adults, according to his theory on infantile sexuality, babies and young children are capable of sexual stimulation, this could be achieved by stroking of stimulating parts of the body. Freud stated that different erogenous zones are more sensitive at different stages in childhood, this he classed as the child's libido. As these erogenous zones come to the forefront they become the focus for sexual pleasure or frustration. He suggested that at any stage excessive gratification or frustration could result in an individual becoming emotionally stuck in a particular stage.At the time of the phallic stage the child becomes aware of the biological differences between males and females, between the ages of 3 and 7 the erogenous zone that becomes dominant is the genital area. Feud believed at this point the boy will develop an unconscious sexual desire for his mother; he will become rivals with his father for the affections of his mother, and feel he is in competition for his mother. During this time, subconsciously the boy will also develop a fear that his father will punish him for having incestuous thoughts for his mother; he fears his punishment will be castration; this will lead to "castration anxiety". At this point he will repress his feelings for his mother and identify with his father, in doing this he will reduce the castration anxiety, Freud called this "identification with the aggressor". By doing this he will try to be like his father, Freud suggested that he would internalise his father's moral standards and develop a super ego, this Freud called the Oedipus complex.Freud also suggested that girls envied their fathers because they had a penis; he concluded that the girl blamed the mother for this and would develop penis envy. Because of this envy the girl will transfer her affections to her father, Freud then(1)stated that as the child realises the unequal struggle to posses the father they would transfer the affection to their mother. Freud suggested that as there was no castration anxiety for the young girl, as she had already been castrated by her mother that these feelings would just fade away. Freud stated that because there was no threat of castration they did not need to renounce their feelings and thus identify with their mother as much. Therefore, the girls would develop a weaker superego and the concept of independence is less developed. This Freud called the Electra complex.There have been many works stating how controversial Freud's...

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