Describe And Discuss Two Possible Causes Of Schizophrenia (One Biological, One Psychological) Suggested By Psychologists, Making Reference To Empirical Evidence In Your Answer.

1488 words - 6 pages

Describe and discuss two possible causes of schizophrenia (one biological, one psychological) suggested by psychologists, making reference to empirical evidence in your answer.Schizophrenia is probably the most serious mental illness recognized in the ICD (International Standard Classification of Diseases, Injures and Causes of Death). It is a disorder that causes the personality to lose its unity and occurs when thoughts and feelings become split from one another, causing bizarre and often unsociable behaviour. The cause of schizophrenia has long been argued although there is evidence to suggest that there is a genetic/biological link and also a social/psychological link to the causes of schizophrenia. However, it is difficult to separate the two and would appear that a combination of both could contribute to the diagnosis of schizophrenia.Schizophrenia causes the sufferer to experience a variety of experiences and thoughts, these can include passivity experiences and thought disturbances where an individual believes that thoughts are being inserted into their minds from external sources, such as the Government or aliens. Hallucinations, which are usually auditory perceptions, whereby a sufferer hears voices, often insulting themselves or giving commands and primary delusions which are false beliefs held by the sufferer, such as delusions of persecution where a schizophrenic will believe that they are being plotted or conspired against. These are just a few of the things that schizophrenia can cause a sufferer to experience.There are five main types of schizophrenia, hebephrenic, simple, catatonic, paranoid and undifferentiated (or Atypical). Hebephrenic schizophrenia is the most severe type and is usually diagnosed in adolescence and young adulthood. This type is progressive and irreversible and its characteristics can include incoherence of language, disorganised delusions and extreme social withdrawal. Simple schizophrenia usually appears in late adolescence and its onset is slow but gradual. An individual will withdraw from reality, become aimless and lack drive, and have difficulty in making and maintaining relationships. Catatonic schizophrenia's major characteristic is the striking impairment of motor activity, an individual may hold difficult or unusual positions until their limbs grow swollen and stiff. They may also engage in bouts of wild excited movement and can become unpredictable and dangerous. Paranoid schizophrenics have the presence of well-organised but delusional thoughts, which are usually accompanied by hallucinations. A paranoid schizophrenic shows the highest level of awareness and the least impairment in their ability to carry out every day functions. Undifferentiated (or Atypical) schizophrenia is used when an individual either exhibits characteristics of one or more type of schizophrenia or does not appear to be of any clear type.So what causes schizophrenia? Firstly let us look at genetic/biological explanations of...

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