Describe At Least Three Forms Of Computer Crime And Outline International And Australian Attempts That Have Been Made To Regulate Them

1773 words - 7 pages

The terms "Computer crime," "Computer-related crime," "High-tech crime" and "Cybercrime" are often used interchangeably. A difference can be made between computer specific crimes and traditional crimes performed with the aid of computer technology. Many countries have passed legislation to address computer-related crime. Under the Australian system of Government, all Australian States and Territories have a general power to enact criminal laws to operate within their own borders. The Commonwealth is limited to enacting criminal laws which fall within one of its enumerated heads of constitutional power; although within these heads of power it can enact law which is applicable across the country and extraterritorially. The Commonwealth's constitutional power to enact laws with respect to "telephonic, telegraphic and other like services" is of particular relevance in the context of cyberspace crime.In many areas, including cyberspace crime, Commonwealth and State and Territory offences exist and operate side by side, with the State and Territory offences applying generally to wrongful conduct within that jurisdiction and the Commonwealth offences targeting particular aspects (for example, offences involving computers owned or leased by the Commonwealth, and offences involving a telecommunications carriage service).Unlawful Access and Computer Trespass(a) Hacking and cracking"Hacker" and "cracker" are terms which are used to describe people who intentionally seek to access computer systems or networks with dishonest intentions. A cracker may access a system with destructive or malicious intentions, such as to alter data or to spread a virus, whereas a hacker is generally motivated by curiosity.Hackers and crackers may be criminally liable if they access, or access and continue to examine, certain data. Cracking may also involve damage to data and fraud.(b) Unauthorised access and computer trespass offencesBoth the Commonwealth, and the States and Territories have enacted laws in relation to computer trespass and the unauthorised access of data. Most of the relevant provisions in the Commonwealth Act relate specifically to Commonwealth data, that is, data which is stored in a Commonwealth computer or data which is stored on behalf of the Commonwealth in a computer that is not a Commonwealth computer.For example, the Commonwealth Act provides that a person who intentionally and without authority obtains access to Commonwealth data is guilty of an offence. The relevant Victorian Act states that a person must not gain access to, or enter, a computer system or part of a computer system without lawful authority to do so. In Tasmania, a person who, without lawful excuse, intentionally gains access to a computer system, system of computers, or any part of a system of computers, is guilty of a crime.The Commonwealth Act also provides that a person who intentionally and without authority obtains access to Commonwealth data, being data that the person knows or...

Find Another Essay On Describe at least three forms of computer crime and outline international and Australian attempts that have been made to regulate them

Sleep Disorders: "Select at least three of the sleep disorders discussed in class and write a brief research paper on them not exceeding 750 words."

717 words - 3 pages waking up) and hypnagogic hallucinations (vivid dream-like images that occur at sleep onset).-Patients with the disorder experience irresistible sleep attacks, throughout the day, which can last for 30 seconds to more than 30 minutes-genetic component to the disorder-Treatment: there is no cure, however, the symptoms can be controlled with behavioral and medical therapy.Sleep Apnea- a serious, potentially life-threatening condition.-breathing

Outline and describe three structural influences on identity

1611 words - 6 pages relatively low, however it is seen as a professional role and I am aware that I have a duty of care and people do trust and rely on me.I also identified myself as a daughter, and a female. I therefore have a gender identity that at times I feel I need to conform to. My occupation as a nurse may be seen to be stereotypical as a female occupation. However I do not feel that I am a stereotypical female. I feel that I can associate with some of the

It is only since 1945 that any real progress has been made in advancing the rights and freedoms of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.

1253 words - 5 pages Essay Question: It is only since 1945 that any real progress has been made in advancing the rights and freedoms of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.The first real attempt to raise awareness of the lack of equality facing Indigenous Australians, was the Day of Mourning campaign of 1938. Indigenous activist and community members, walked a silent protest to the Australian Hall and this protest took place on Australia day. The Day

Computer Software Priacy and its Impact on the International Economy. Covers all aspects and forms of software piracy

3041 words - 12 pages , forexample, Belarus and Romania, have general copyright laws that protect literaryexpression, but fail to clearly protect computer software" ("What is.." Internet). Irelandis Europe's worst offender with yearly losses of more then forty-four million dollars peryear due to the fact that eighty-three percent of software is pirated ("Software Piracy:Ireland..." Internet).The BSA "called for legislative reform and stricter observance of laws

Honesty at the Mercy of Disguise King Lear - Shakespeare Corrections made by teacher have been made on essay.

1194 words - 5 pages till [Edgar] wake[s] him,'" (I, II, 55). Forcing Edgar to disguise himself, he "take[s] the basest and most poorest shape" (II, III, 7) Edgar's disguise is justified through self preservation, he would have been killed if he remained as Edgar. Through Edmund's persuasion, Gloucester is convinced that Edgar is "Worse than brutish!" (I, II, 77) and an "Abhorred villain!" (I, II, 76). Despite the endangerment of Edgar's life, he remains in the

Outline and describe the three major ways of organizing a city government? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

604 words - 2 pages Outline and describe the three major ways of organizing a city government? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?Council ManagerVotersCouncilMayorCity ManagerCity DepartmentsStrong Mayor CouncilVotersCouncilMayorCity DepartmentsWeak Mayor CouncilVotersCouncilMayorTreasurerClerkCity DepartmentsA city with a council manager style government is the most popular among Michigan cities. This type of government allows for the citizens to

What is the difference between diegetic and non-diegetic sound? Discuss with reference to at least three recent films.

2148 words - 9 pages the non-diegetic link using the same scene and instance.The first of the three links to be compared shall be the natural voice or sound of the character within the scene. The opening scene of Baz Lurhmann's adaptation of Romeo and Juliet uses a news reporter, being portrayed as a news programme through the use of the medium close-up of the T.V. set. Here we see a news report that at first glance would seem as a typical bulletin. However, this is

What role do diseases and longevity play in policy development? What has been the role of managed care and attempts at reform in health policy?

948 words - 4 pages problems that America is facing is a lack of care and planning for an aging population. This problem has not been alleviated by Medicare, mainly due to the fact that it overly simplified the elderly population at its inception, and did not allow for much variation within such a population (Oberlander 30-33). Furthermore, the costs of many of the medical services and devices needed by the elderly were not covered by Medicare due to caps on annual costs

Describe a pilgrimage you go on during the Renaissance. Name and describe at least two cathedrals you visit.

776 words - 3 pages complete this journey. Some of my friends had already been on pilgrimages, or religious journeys, but this would be my first. I wasn't looking forward to the walking, but reaching the cathedrals, and seeing them for myself. I had heard a lot about the newly built cathedrals, and how enormous they were; I could hardly wait to see them.I was going on this trip with my mom, dad, and younger brother, Sean. We, as a family, were going with a larger

Crime and Punishment: Do you agree with the moral "crime does not pay"? Refer to at least two texts in your answer.

618 words - 2 pages did a big robbery, made loads of money and spent the rest of your days in Spain. In the 1980s, armed robbery started to get dangerous so you did one or two, went to Spain and invested the money in drugs. Nowadays, thanks to improved security measures, the average armed robbery nets only a few hundred pounds and newcomers to crime have no choice but to start right at the bottom and work their way up.As is often the case in big business, a career

Crime and Punishment: Do you agree with the moral "crime does not pay"? Refer to at least two texts in your answer.

1929 words - 8 pages orders. He hangs up three kneading-troughs in the attic which are to be used as boats and at night the three of them get in their boats. The carpenter falls in a deep sleep after all his work so he doesn’t know the two lovers have secretly gone downstairs to bed. However Absalon, a young parish clerk who is in love with the carpenter’s wife, hears that the carpenter hasn’t been to work since Saturday. He uses this as an opportunity

Similar Essays

Compare And Contrast International Attempts To Regulate Spam With The Spam Act 2003 (Cth)

1474 words - 6 pages civil sanctions regime for breaches.The Act will ban the supply, acquisition and use of addresses harvesting and address list generation software for the purpose of sending spam, as well as the list produced against using the software.Courts will also be able to compensate businesses which have suffered at a spammer's hands, and the courts will be able to recover the financial gains made from spammers.Main Effect of LegislationIn summary, the

Why Do People Need To Know What Decisions Have Been Made About Them And How Can Individuals Get Access To That Information?

537 words - 2 pages People need to know what decisions have been made against them so they can verify that fair and just decisions, according to the law have been made. They also need to know the decisions so that they can correct any wrong information about themselves. The decisions that are made about people affect them in many everyday situations. For example:Loans (bad credit rating)Getting into the country or traveling (passport, work visa etc)Applying for

Outline And Discuss The Australian Economy And How It Attempts To Solve The Economic Problem

739 words - 3 pages Australia attempts to solve the economic problem by the implementation of its mixed economy. The Australian economic system resides between a planned and free market enterprise, leaning more towards a free market with some government intervention. With a definable economic state, it becomes possible to further outline the aspects of it and how it actually attempts to address the economic problem.The economic problem plagues all consumers. It can

There Are Different Strategies In The Global Marketplace. Identify Them And Discuss At Least Two In Depth. Analyse Examples Of Companies Which Have Successfully Applied Them.

2021 words - 8 pages it has grown into a highly successful global network of stores but retained the same retailing concept: "to offer a wide range of furnishing items of good design and functions at prices so low that the majority of people can afford to buy them". IKEA is the world's largest furniture retailer. The products are simple, high-quality Scandinavian design.IKEA combines two different strategies - cost leader and product differentiation.The IKEA product