Describe Stroop's Famous Experiment and the Stroop Effect
Strop Ridley wrote the article, known as the “Studies of Interference in Serial Verbal Reactions” in the year 1935. The article was based on a research that he conducted using colors to analyze the effects of interference on serial verbal reactions. The main objective of the research was establishing relationships between common changes in the environment and the reaction to these changes with respect to time (Stroop, 1935). In his study, Stroop developed a model that was meant to analyze the reaction by some students with regards to color identification and reading out words painted in different colors.
The article has details of three experiments that were carried out to realize the objectives of the study. According to the first experiment, the focus was to establish the effects of Interfering Color Stimuli upon Reading Names of Colors Serially. The experiment had 70 college students as the subjects, 14 males and 56 females. The study was meant to illustrate the stimulus effects by use of different colors. The students were expected to read out the colors of different words printed in different colors in which they represented. For example, the word blue would be printed in color red and the students asked to read out the color of the word.
The second experiment that was illustrated in the article was also aimed at identifying the effect of interfering word stimuli upon naming colors serially. In this experiment, the color of the print was the dependent variable. This meant that the students were supposed to identify with the color of the print, but not on the name that was read out (Stroop, 1935). The experiment had 100 students taking part, 88 of them being undergraduate students and 12 being graduates. From these two groups, the undergraduates were 29 males and 59 females, while the second group had all female students. These students were expected to identify the colors from the printed words. In each of the experiment, there were equal tests that eliminated bias and ensured that the experiment was reliable.
The third experiment was carried out with the aim of determining the effects of practice upon interference. The experiment was meant to realize the difficulty of differentiating different sets of lines. The numbers were printed in an upright and inverted position to make the test more difficult and to realize the experiment’s objectives. This research involved 32 apprentices, including 17 males and 15 females. These students participated in various tests, some of which included reading out some tests and recoding the average time taken to identify the color names (Stroop, 1935).
The three experiments were analyzed in graphs and tables. In all these experiments, it was realized that the average time that was taken to identify with each of the colors and names in the printed document was more than the one taken under normal circumstances. Seven tables were used to...