Describe The Porter's Diamond Model And Show How Each Of The Five Factors Influence The Attractiveness Of An Industry.

3644 words - 15 pages

Porter's Five ForcesA MODEL FOR INDUSTRY ANALYSISThe model of pure competition implies that risk-adjusted rates of return should be constant across firms and industries. However, numerous economic studies have affirmed that different industries can sustain different levels of profitability; part of this difference is explained by industry structure.Michael Porter provided a framework that models an industry as being influenced by five forces. The strategic business manager seeking to develop an edge over rival firms can use this model to better understand the industry context in which the firm operates.Porter explains that there are five forces that determine industry attractiveness and long-run industry profitability. These five "competitive forces" are- The threat of entry of new competitors (new entrants)- The threat of substitutes- The bargaining power of buyers- The bargaining power of suppliers- The degree of rivalry between existing competitorsThreat of New EntrantsNew entrants to an industry can raise the level of competition, thereby reducing its attractiveness. The threat of new entrants largely depends on the barriers to entry. High entry barriers exist in some industries (e.g. shipbuilding) whereas other industries are very easy to enter (e.g. estate agency, restaurants). Key barriers to entry include- Economies of scale- Capital / investment requirements- Customer switching costs- Access to industry distribution channels- The likelihood of retaliation from existing industry players.Threat of SubstitutesThe presence of substitute products can lower industry attractiveness and profitability because they limit price levels. The threat of substitute products depends on:- Buyers' willingness to substitute- The relative price and performance of substitutes- The costs of switching to substitutesBargaining Power of Suppliers (Suppliers are the businesses that supply materials & other products into the industry)The cost of items bought from suppliers (e.g. raw materials, components) can have a significant impact on a company's profitability. If suppliers have high bargaining power over a company, then in theory the company's industry is less attractive. The bargaining power of suppliers will be high when:- There are many buyers and few dominant suppliers- There are undifferentiated, highly valued products- Suppliers threaten to integrate forward into the industry (e.g. brand manufacturers threatening to set up their own retail outlets)- Buyers do not threaten to integrate backwards into supply- The industry is not a key customer group to the suppliersBargaining Power of BuyersBuyers are the people / organisations who create demand in an industryThe bargaining power of buyers is greater when- There are few dominant buyers and many sellers in the industry- Products are standardised- Buyers threaten to integrate backward into the industry- Suppliers do not threaten to integrate forward into the buyer's industry- The industry is not a key...

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