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Description Of Metabolic Syndrome Essay

683 words - 3 pages

Metabolic Syndrome (syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome) is the name for a group of risk factors that raises your risk for diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other health problems, such as diabetes and stroke.2 It is characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, low HDL, and elevated triglycerides. Some hallmarks of metabolic syndromes are dyslipidemia, central adiposity, and a predisposition to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genetics appears to play an important role in predisposing certain individuals and populations to the development of metabolic syndrome.1 Multiple environmental factors modify this genetic predisposition and include physical inactivity, advancing age, cigarette smoking, and endocrine dysfunction. The presence of one or either of these signs should alert the clinician to search for other biochemical abnormalities that may be associated with the metabolic syndrome.
There needs to be at least 3 of the 5 risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.3 There are 3 etiological categories for metabolic syndrome, disorders that deal with adipose tissue; insulin resistance, and a many independent factors that mediate different aspects of the metabolic syndrome. The medical history should include evaluation of symptoms for OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) in all patients.1 OSA is commonly associated with obesity, HTN, increased circulating cytokines and insulin resistance.1 Medical history should include evaluation of symptoms for PCOS in premenopausal women. PCOS is prevalent in 40-50% of women with metabolic syndrome and is 2-4 times more likely to occur than women without PCOS.1 Family history will help determine risk for CVD and DM.1 Blood pressure and waist circumference measurements provide information necessary for the diagnosis.1 Some ways to diagnose this syndrome include measuring the plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL, blood pressure, and waist circumference.3 Fasting lipids and glucose are needed to determine if the metabolic syndrome is present.1 The measurement of additional biomarkers associated with insulin resistance can be individualized. Some other tests might include high-sensitivity CRP, apoB, uric acid,...

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