This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Desegregation, Busing, And Schools Essay

2562 words - 10 pages


       The issue of desegregation has been a very controversial issue since it was first legally introduced by the Supreme Court in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS. Favoring or not favoring desegregation has not been the issue; almost everyone says they are for it on the surface. The controversy arises when it comes to how to implement desegregation. Immediately following the Brown decision, which advocated school assignment regardless of race, many school districts adopted a geographic school assignment policy. This plan, especially in the 1950's, did very little to do away with segregated schools even though it was a race-neutral policy for integration. From that rocky beginning to desegregation, to the current battles over how best to implement desegregation through mandatory (or voluntary) busing of minorities and whites, this issue has been in the forefront of discussions about race and education. This paper will attempt to give a brief history of desegregation in the United States, followed by a discussion of the current events which surround this issue (with balance given to the viewpoints of both sides), and then offer advice on solutions which most benefit everyone involved.

 

 

Brown v. Board of the Education in 1954 was a landmark decision in the education arena. The decision maintained that schools that separated students by the color of their skin could no longer be maintained. The court saw this as necessary, since in their mind schools for black students would always be inferior. This inferiority would not be caused by lack of resources, although that usually was a contributing factor to the poor quality of the school, physically and performance-wise. As the Supreme Court saw it, separating students by color would give black students the idea that white students did not want to share a class with them. This would, in turn, lead to feelings of self-doubt, low self-esteem, and inferiority, which would damage the students' ability to not only learn, but also to function in a society in which the white culture is the dominant culture (Hacker, 1992). The Supreme Court issued a minor case the following year, 1955, in a decision commonly referred to as <>(Armor, 1988). This case was for the most part a restatement of the original Brown case. It was very broad in its mandates, including ordering school systems "to achieve a system of determining admission to the public schools on a nonracial basis" (Armor, 1988). This mandate to achieve integrated schools by making nonracial decisions led many school districts to draw geographic areas for neighborhood schools. While this does not officially sanction separate schools for whites and blacks, due to the lack of integration in many of the neighborhoods, it was essentially the same separate schools as before the Brown case. Another method that many school districts used was the freedom-of-choice approach. The schools were no longer officially white or...

Find Another Essay On Desegregation, Busing, and Schools

Separate and Unequal: Overcoming Segregation in America

4076 words - 16 pages door enrollment policies allowed for Operation Exodus to be established in 1965; under its aegis approximately 400 black students were bused to predominantly white schools throughout the city. In 1974 judge W. Arthur Garrity ordered the school committee to develop a school desegregation plan that would require the citywide busing of students. The reaction to busing in Boston among the white residents was more hostile, and in the end more

The Character of the City Boston in J Anthony Lukas' Common Ground and Richard Broadman's Mission Hill and the Miracle of Boston

2243 words - 9 pages that some people believed in the 1970s that Mission Hill might one day not exist because of the growth of the hospitals. Boston according to J Anthony Lukas is the "cradle of liberty, no city in the nation can boast so many revolutionary events."(Lukas, 315) When talking about conflict and the city of Boston the most recent case would be the school busing case of 1974. There is no bigger case concerning the desegregation of schools in the city

Classifications Of Individulats

566 words - 2 pages that professional schools and regular schools are basically the same in essence, their purpose is to educate, so there should be no reason why professional school had to be equal and public schools did not.The courts thought is was necessary for busing to achieve intergration because some segregation was defacto segregation caused by economic problems. Busing would intergrate students who were segregated by location.The Little Rock crisis was caused

A Look at Desegregation as a Part of a Larger Phenomenon in American History

1000 words - 4 pages more than the African Americans at the hand of Anglo-Saxon Americans. In his "South Carolina Schools and Colleges Desegregation" manuscript William E. Rone details the hard fought court cases against educational segregation in South Carolina during the 50s and 60s as well as events which related to those cases. The cases depict a story of intolerance, disregard for the law with respect to desegregation, and outright harm to non-white Americans

Rough Draft

3797 words - 16 pages unconstitutionally segregated (Weinbaum). He ordered Boston to desegregate in all public schools by forced busing. This new plan forced students from white neighborhoods to go to school in black neighborhoods, and forced students black neighborhoods to go to school in predominantly white neighborhoods to balance the racial diversity. However, this ruling was highly unpopular among the White Americans who were still in favor of segregation. A series of

The African American People's Fight for Equality

2553 words - 10 pages achieved? There would exist desegregation and integration in theory but not in reality. Race relations were a major concern in Alabama in the 1950s and the 1960s. Civil rights activists worked tirelessly to end racial segregation in the state. Although the United States Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public schools to be unconstitutional, white officials in Alabama avoided enforcing the decision until the 1960s. Prior to this

Segregation in Schools

1895 words - 8 pages brought are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment" (Cozzens, 1998).As this ruling began to be put into effect, school administrators and school boards realized that they faced what could be a considerable problem. Many were opposed to integration and desegregation of schools and violence was a big issue. Even in the midst of all the controversy, some school

Affirmative Action is Reverse Discrimination

2420 words - 10 pages students are transferred to another school for purposes of racial integration. It is costly to run all the buses and the commuting is hard on the students. Those opposing busing are said to agree with the segregation of schools.(Glazer, 10) The desegregation of schools was also mentioned in the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Initially this seemed a fair proposal, but just as affirmative action became detrimental in the workplaces, integrating

Proposed Plan

587 words - 3 pages city. The schools in the city of St. Louis have higher poverty, lower test scores, and lower graduation rates than the nearby suburban schools. I would like to empirically investigate the positive or negative impact busing has on student performance. Specifically, I would look at student’s grades, test scores, and behavioral record before and after being admitted to the program and also compare their records with students who attend the city

Causes of Friction in Interracial Marriages

1725 words - 7 pages Causes of Friction in Interracial Marriages The United States has witnessed a considerable amount of social and cultural desegregation between African-Americans and Caucasians. However, despite years of desegregation, social and cultural differences still exist. One of these differences that still exists is in the institution of marriage. Americans have been and are continually moving slowly away from segregation. In the past forty years, a

Attitudinal Changes and Mindset in Public Education

1736 words - 7 pages following proposals for effective education. For example, in order to achieve desegregation in public schools, the districts implemented busing students from one neighborhood to the next. The struggle for desegregation was strongest during this time period under the Johnson Administration followed by the Nixon Administration. The “Civil Rights of 1964, which bans racial discrimination in any federally assisted programs” promoted these fervent actions

Similar Essays

The Trials Of Desegregation Essay

2215 words - 9 pages grew up … I had to adapt to pretty much a White world that I was pushed into … But when I went back home, I had to talk like people talked in my neighborhood”’ was a reality in the students life (William 89). Even though courts ordered desegregation in the schools they offered no defined preparation of how to achieving it. Along with the orders came many failed attempts and complicated situations; including busing issues, lack of what the

The End Of Integration Essay

871 words - 3 pages all be summed up with what Chris Hansen of the American Civil Liberties Union in New York City believes the courts are saying, 'We still agree with the goal of school desegregation, but it's too hard, and we're tired of it, and we give up.'It all started with Brown v. Board of Education saying 'Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.' There began a plan to desegregate public schools across America. The first plan was bussing when

Desegregation Essay

3181 words - 13 pages the implications that it was having on their everyday lives. Desegregation was undoubtedly a political issue but these students were living daily with discrimination and injustice and to hear their side of the story really is astonishing.Later, in July of 1969, the NAACP sent a letter to the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education about the issue of "busing". Many people at the time felt that busing students to other schools was unnecessary and

Desegregating The Obsolete Busing System At Rio Bueno High School

1337 words - 5 pages belief I was in its beginning. That are these schools are analogous to tarnished silver spoons. What they need is to have some polish purchased—books and teaching resources by the money that is saved from the unnecessary cost of the desegregation busing. Additionally, some effort in polishing them, there is nothing wrong with the school and it doesn't need to be scrapped and thrown away, rather, rebuilt on the foundation it already has built