3.3 Design cognition and Safety
Design and cognition contributes to the improvement of safety, by reducing the risk of human error. This is using developments from education and technological systems across all industries which all would have involved extensive input from the human mind. Based on a selection of papers, this section will focus on an analysis of cognition tools and identify the importance role that cognition has to safety within the highway and Air Traffic Management (ATM) sectors.
3.3.2 Analysis of design media, modelling and interfaces
An essential part of design cognition is the accurate graphical representation of the ideas from the human mind and how the mind processes information. This allows these ideas to be developed and modelled electronically into a 2D or 3D format i.e. Autocad or Building Information Modelling. This is only helping to improve both safety and delivery of the design and construction process and has required significant research and investigation facilitate and develop this use of computer modelling.
Delivery of effective visualisations for a target audience using cognitive design principles in algorithms was explored, with the aim of reducing the need for collaborations between graphic designers and product designs (Tversky et al 2006). This work was based on the production of maps based on how a selection of students made mental representation of visualisations to the nearest fast food takeaway restaurant by writing down directions or drawing a map demonstrating the way.
Figure x – Two examples of different map sketches (Tversky et al 2006)
From the analysis it was determined that the layout of a map must be accurate as users consider directions to be provided in a systematic order and secondly that the users did not accurately display the correct distances or angles on their maps. These principles allowed the development of computer algorithms created a programme called LineDrive which introduced the simplification of highway maps.
Figure x - Comparison of traditional map v LineDrive map (M. Agrawala. (2001))
In the same study, a similar experiment was undertaken to establish mental representations and graphic preferences by asking students to assemble the object and then prepare a set of instructions. The majority represented the task with text and 3D sketches with arrows to highlight which parts fitted where to allow construction of the object.
Oxman (2000) undertook research into the support of cognitive design by studying the computational modelling based on the processes of cognition undertaken by a designer. This included the use of computer modelling to create emergence of schema based on an original design and developed a conceptual framework for schema emergence. The aim of which was to reduce the time for designers to create additional graphical representations of an initial idea.
Figure x - Conceptual framework for schema emergence. (Oxman 2000)