Figure 3 11. BBS of a Beam
Bar Bending Schedule of Columns
The column’s reinforcement are not particularly similar on all floors, therefore all columns were studied floor wise. The columns are also divided in two phases per floor, similar to that of beams. The values derived from the STAAD.Pro results re percentage of steel and stirrup spacing. The percentage is multiplied with the gross area of section and the reinforcement area is achieved. STAAD.Pro aims at lesser number of bars with higher diameter, but it cannot always be sufficient, therefore the number of bars were calculated manually for all columns.
Also, STAAD.Pro does not consider lap length for the column reinforcement, and the members are designed on a single element basis. Thus, the reinforcement provided is usually higher than the STAAD.Pro requirement. Lap length depends on the grade of steel and concrete. In this structure, the lap length has been kept constant at 50 × Diameter of bar.
The complete BBS of columns is attached in Appendix ABC. A sample BBS for columns is shown in figure 555.
Figure 3 12. BBS of a Column
Design of Miscellaneous Components
Few components such as Shear Wall and Balcony cannot be designed in STAAD.Pro. These elements have to be manually designed.
Design of Shear Wall
Design of Balcony
Foundation Design in STAAD.Foundation
The STAAD.Pro file can be directly exported to STAAD.Foundation for designing foundation. Isolated, Combined, Pile and Raft foundation can be designed through this software. The details required to design foundation are column position details, base reactions, moments and load combinations. The designing is itself very straightforward in STAAD.Foundation. For this structure, 61 isolated footings and 1 raft foundation of area 34 m2 and depth 0.8 m.
To start designing, a job is created first, which is specific to the type of foundation being designed. The columns, and design code are selected. Then, in the job created, the design properties are put. The screen shot of the same is shown in figure 555. The information regarding concrete and reinforcement detail, soil properties and dimensions of footings are entered. Fixed dimensions are used when the manual results need to be checked. Otherwise, the option is set to calculate dimensions.
Figure 5 1. Properties Area in STAAD.Foundation
Then, the design is run and results are obtained. STAAD.Foundation gives the schedule of drawings, structure drawings, and concrete design calculations. The data can be complied to make the Bar Bending Schedule for the footings. The BBS for Isolated footings is attached in Appendix ABC. The design has been cross checked with the manual results.
There are 9 different sizes of isolated square footings, with sizes ranging from 1.65 × 1.65 m to 3.65 × 3.65 m. The total area covered by isolated footings is 407.7 m2, which is 11.6% coverage of the total site area. The depths of the footings range from 0.4 m to 0.9 m. The...