2.4.1 Types of syllabus
A syllabus is an expression of opinion on the nature of language and leaning; it is considered as a guide for teacher as well as for learner to provide them with the goals to be achieved. Hutchinson and Waters define syllabus in the following way: at its simplest level a syllabus can be described as a statement of what is to be learnt. It reflects language and linguistic performance. [1; p.80] This interpretation is based on results and consequences rather than on process and it is viewed as a traditional explanation. However, a syllabus can also be seen as a “summary of the content to which learners will be exposed” [25; p. 66] A language teaching syllabus involves the integration of subject matter and linguistic matter.
We need to differentiate the notion of syllabus and curriculum. If we compare these two notions, curriculum is wider term than syllabus. Curriculum includes all the activities and arrangements made by the institution through out the academic year to help the learners and the instructors. Syllabus is limited to a particular subject of a particular class. While designing a syllabus it is necessary to take into account what to teach and in what order. For this reason, the theory of language underlying the language teaching method will play a major role in deciding what syllabus should be chosen. For example, a syllabus which is based on the theory of leaning developed by cognitive code teaching would give prominence to language forms and whatever definite descriptive knowledge about those forms. A syllabus based on an acquisition theory of learning, however, would stress unanalyzed and carefully selected experiences of the new language. [19; p. 40]
The choice of a syllabus is a rather serious step in designing a course. There are different types of language teaching syllabus, and these types can be used in various teaching situations. In spite of the fact that there are 6 main types of syllabus, in practice, we will not be able to find them independently. Almost all language teaching syllabi present a combination of two or even more types. Usually for one course the dominant position is given to one syllabus types, while other types of syllabus may be combined with it. What is more, it is not easy to distinguish one type of syllabus from another. For example, if we take skill-based and task-based syllabi the distinction is not evident. It consists in the way in which the instructional content is used in the actual teaching procedure. The characteristics, differences, strengths and weaknesses of individual syllabi are defined as follows:
1. Product-Oriented Syllabuses – this type of syllabus is aimed at the product of language learning and tends to get approval from an authority. There are three types of syllabus which belong to the category of product-approach syllabi.
1.1 The Structural Syllabus.
Historically, it is considered as the most widely used and accepted type of syllabus. It is also called...