Detection Of Biological Molecules. Lab Work.

2371 words - 9 pages

very extensive lab... the results should be obtained by the reader who should have the info. good style and observations.DETECTION OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULESIntroduction: Without carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen and phosphorus, lifewouldn't exist. These are the most abundant elements in living organisms. These elementsare held together by covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds.Covalent bonds are especially strong, thus, are present in monomers, the building blocksof life. These monomers combine to make polymers, which is a long chain of monomersstrung together. Biological molecules can be distinguished by their functional groups. Forexample, an amino group is present in amino acids, and a carboxyl group can always befound in fatty acids. The groups can be separated into two more categories, the polar,hydrophilic, and the nonpolar, hydrophobic. A fatty acid is nonpolar, hence it doesn't mixwith water. Molecules of a certain class have similar chemical properties because theyhave the same functional groups. A chemical test that is sensitive to these groups can beused to identify molecules that are in that class. This lab is broken down into fourdifferent sections, the Benedict's test for reducing sugars, the iodine test for the presenceof starch, the Sudan III test for fatty acids, and the Biuret test for amino groups present inproteins. The last part of this lab takes an unknown substance and by the four tests,determine what the substance is.BENEDICT'S TESTIntroduction: Monosaccharides and disaccharides can be detected because of their freealdehyde groups, thus, testing positive for the Benedict's test. Such sugars act as areducing agent, and is called a reducing sugar. By mixing the sugar solution with theBenedict's solution and adding heat, an oxidation-reduction reaction will occur. The sugarwill oxidize, gaining an oxygen, and the Benedict's reagent will reduce, loosing an oxygen.If the resulting solution is red orange, it tests positive, a change to green indicates asmaller amount of reducing sugar, and if it remains blue, it tests negative.Materials:onion juice 5 test tubes 1 beakerpotato juice ruler hot platedeionized water permanent marker 5 tongsglucose solution labelsstarch solution 6 barrel pipettesBenedict's reagent 5 toothpicksProcedure:1. Marked 5 test tubes at 1 cm and 3 cm from the bottom. Label test tubes #1-#5.2. Used 5 different barrel pipettes, added onion juice up to the 1 cm mark of the first test tube, potato juice to the 1 cm mark of the second, deionized water up to the 1 cm mark of the third, glucose solution to the 1 cm mark of the fourth, and the starch solution to the 1 cm mark of the fifth test tube.3. Used the last barrel pipette, added Benedict's Reagent to the 3 cm mark of all 5 test tubes and mix with a...

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