This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Determination Of Available Phosphate In Water Spectrophotometric Procedure

5536 words - 22 pages

Letort VanessaStudent number: 2029474HEV 4031Kershaw PaulDETERMINATION OF AVAILABLE PHOSPHATE IN WATERSPECTROPHOTOMETRIC PROCEDUREAIMSThis laboratory session should enable the operator:1. To gain knowledge of the phosphorus cycle.2. To understand the importance of the phosphorus element in biological systems and environmental systems.3. To identify the origins of phosphorus pollution and its impact on water ecosystems.4. To understand the process of eutrophication of water, and the role played by phosphorus.5. To gain experience in the practical application of colorimetry as an analytical technique.6. To use the spectrophotometer method to determine the concentration of phosphate in different natural waters and an unknown sample.7. To introduce the method of preparing standards by serial dilutions and to use these standards in the production of a calibration curve.8. To analyse and identify the errors limits inherent of the procedure.9. To compare results with guidelines on water quality.INTRODUCTIONPhosphorus is a non-metallic element, belonging to group V of the periodic table. There are three allotropic forms of the phosphorus element, red, white, and black. All phosphorus allotropes are very reactive (Concise Science dictionary, 1984).Phosphorus is of primary importance in biological systems. Phosphorus is the key to energy in living organisms; it is phosphorus that moves energy from ATP to another molecule. Adenosine triphosphate is important in the storage and use of energy and a key stage in the Kreb's Cycle. Therefore, the availability of phosphorus is a key factor controlling photosynthesis, thus a key factor at the base of any food chains. Phosphorus is also contained in DNA and RNA, binding desoxyribose sugars together in DNA, and binding ribose sugars together in RNA (Porteous, 2000).Furthermore, a low level of available phosphorus is a major limiting factor for plants growth, and is often a limiting factor for cell divisions (Toshio, 1999).Phosphorus compounds are not very soluble, and much of the soluble forms quickly reacts with iron, aluminium, clay, organic matter, and carbonates and becomes unavailable to plants. As much as 80% of this phosphorus can be in the organic form. However, the soluble form, that which plants absorb, is only a small fraction of the total and usually occurs in concentrations 0.01 to 0.1 ppm in the soil solution (Winfield, 1995).In nature, phosphorus is never free, it is mainly found in the form of phosphate ion, .This polyatomic ion phosphate is the main source of phosphorus on Earth.The weathering of rocks releases phosphorus as phosphate ions. Phosphorus exists in the water in several forms: organic phosphate, orthophosphate (inorganic phosphorus), and polyphosphate (more likely in polluted areas) (Internet 1).These forms of phosphate occur in living and decaying plant and animal remains, as free ions or weakly chemically bounded in aqueous systems, chemically bounded to sediments and soils, or as...

Find Another Essay On Determination of available phosphate in water spectrophotometric procedure

Determination of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of River Water Samples

2907 words - 12 pages procedure. It is vital when carrying out the tests for determining COD that the exact same method is used for the measurement for each sample in order to make accurate comparisons. Small groups carried out each different sample test and the data was collected as class data. This creates much opportunity for slight differences in method as each water sample was tested by a different group of people, which inevitable creates variation.Equipment error could

Determination of Bulk Density and Water Content of a Cohesive Soil

883 words - 4 pages ObjectiveThe objective of this experiment is to determine the bulk density and water content of a wet, cohesive soil.IntroductionThe bulk density of a soil is simply the total mass per total volume. This means the soil sample is weighed with the water still in the sample and then divided by the total volume it occupies giving the bulk density. Finding out the bulk density of a soil is important as it can reveal how much total dry material you

Vibrational data discussion on the Adsorption of Phosphate on Pt(111) and Pt(100) studied in situ FTIR spectroscopy

815 words - 3 pages to use the appropriate electrolyte solutions. So in this article, the phosphate species is monitored as an adsorption on Pt(111) and Pt(100) in acid media.The in situ FTIR experiment was done a Digilab FTS-40 IR spectrometer. The Pt(111) and Pt(100) crystal electrodes were prepared, pretreated by flame, and protected by a drop of deaerated Millipore MilliQ water as it was transferred to the spectroelectrochemical cell. The counter electrode was

Can Determination Be one of the Foundations in Life?

1920 words - 8 pages the world really spins in a way that even if you get stabbed more than once you keep going on and on. I knew that they were capable of destroying anytime I gave up. I felt frustrated at first from them but I continued my way alone I gathered my strength again. What was similar to my life and Jimmy Baca life was simple determination that held us together, without determination we could face our struggles and issues and over came them. Me

Determination and Perseverance in Life of Pi, by Yann Martel

836 words - 4 pages barbaric acts, emphasizes the key idea of survival. Determination and perseverance is evident in the actions executed by Pi, the zebra and the hyena, assisted by their sheer will to live. The main protagonist, Piscine Patel displays an innate desire for survival as he demonstrates his versatility through to the absence of refinement. His morality is shattered, as he comes across the dire circumstances of his ordeal. This is evident when Pi abandons

Level of Aggression in House Crickets (Acheta domesticus) With Different Resources Available

1393 words - 6 pages Level of Aggression in House Crickets (Acheta domesticus) With Different Resources Available Level of Aggression in House Crickets (Acheta domesticus) With Different Resources Available Abstract: The house cricket, Acheta domesticus, was used to test whether food and potential mates drive aggressive behavior. Male crickets were randomly selected in pairs and place into a cage to observe aggressive behaviors in the

The Resources Available to Those At Risk of Poverty in Clitheroe’s Cotton Famine

2428 words - 10 pages The Resources Available to Those At Risk of Poverty in Clitheroe’s Cotton Famine In 1860 Lancashire cotton district was at its peak, by 1861 it was fast collapsing as was the economy and people’s welfare, surrounding it. The American Civil War in 1861 not only created dire consequences for American civilians and over four million slaves, but the North blockaded the southern ports preventing mills from receiving raw

The Importance of Determination in the Lives of Benjamin Franklin and Christopher McCandless

695 words - 3 pages Benjamin Franklin and Christopher McCandless both demonstrate that determination often leads to greater skills and intelligence. Throughout Ben Franklin’s life he gains a lot of intelligence through his determination to do new things and his strive to do better. Chris McCandless gains a lot of life skills through his determination to go and live in the wild. Determination played a key role in their intelligence and success. “There was just no

The Role of Virus Receptor Recognition in the Determination of Pathogenesis

1403 words - 6 pages immune cells such as T helper cells, which are a type of white blood cells, and weaken the host immune system. This essay will consider the role of virus receptor recognition in the determination of pathogenesis. The pathogenesis of any virus depends totally on the virus ability to enter the host cell. That is because of the fact that outside a living cell the virus is inactive as a grain of sand (UXL Encyclopedia of Science, 2002). So, the

The Theme of Determination in “A Worn Path” by Eudora Welty

677 words - 3 pages Everyday people encounter challenges that stand in their way of achieving their goals, but with sheer determination most accomplish their mission. In the short story “A Worn Path” written by Eudora Welty, Phoenix Jackson, the main character, has a mission to complete while confronting many challenges. One way to convey this idea is with the literary use of theme. The theme of a literary work is defined as the central idea, concern or message

The Power of Water in Religion

1568 words - 7 pages Roughly 70% of the human body are made of water. The average human can only live without water for about 3 to 5 days. Nothing can exist without out water, water is the source of life. Mircea Eliade (1996) states “Water symbolized the who potentiality; is “fons et origo”, the source of all things and of all existence (p.188). So it makes sense that water plays such a huge role in the religion. While the Islamic, Judaic, Hindu, and Zoroastrian

Similar Essays

Gravimetric Determination Of Water In Hydrated Magnesium Chloride

521 words - 3 pages Aim: To calculate the value of n in MgCl2.nH2OTheory: Gravimetric analysis is where the amount of a specific chemical in a material is determined by converting it to a product which can be isolated completely and weighed. This is relevant to this experiment as the amount of water is an unknown value which is to be found by carrying out the analysis.Heating to constant mass is when repeated heating, cooling then weighing is carried out until the

To Investigate The Effect Of Phosphate On Cell Division In Root Tips

1563 words - 6 pages variableThe output variable for this experiment is the number of mitosis occurring in the root tips.Fair testI am going to use the nutrient solution which does not contain phosphate as a control. Therefore it proves that without phosphate, the process of mitosis would not occur.The external factors such as temperature, light, water, oxygen and carbon dioxide will be controlled.Temperature, as there is an optimum for plant growth. Temperature for the

Determination Of Vanillin In Imitation Vanilla Essence

1526 words - 7 pages Contents 1.0 Introduction 3 1.1 Objective 3 1.2 Background 3 1.3 Technique Analysis 4 2.0 Experimental Procedure 6 3.0 Results 8 3.1 Table of Concentration of Vanillin with Absorbance 8 3.2 Calculation 9 4.0 Discussion 10 5.0 Conclusion 11 6.0 Reference 12   1.0 Introduction 1.1 Objective The objective of this experiment is to analyze the concentration of active ingredient vanillin in artificial vanilla essence by UV

Histopathological Determination Of Age In Archaeological Remains

1696 words - 7 pages they could be the basis of a very reliable and easy to apply method that might bring additional data concerning age determination. The reliability and feasibility of this method are given by the fact that very small pieces of bone would be needed and therefore eroded, aged and damaged bones might be used too (Amprino, Bairati, 1936; Jowsey 1960). The femur, humerus, clavicle or rib are usually used in this kind of studies as they are relatively