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Determining The Concentration Of A Limewater Solution.

3083 words - 12 pages

AimThis experiment aims to determine the effect an increasing temperature has on a typical plant cell structure.IntroductionCells are surrounded by thin membranes (approximately 5 nm) that separate inside from out, life from non-life. These cell membranes perform many functions:·Barrier: membranes keep the contents of the cell together, allowing nutrients to pass in but keeping out many harmful substances.·Signalling: membranes relays information about the surroundings of the cell tot eh inside and in the other direction·Factory site: membranes provides places where enzymes can be arranged in an assembly line fashion·Energy conversion: membranes allow light and chemical energy to be converted into more usable forms·Subdividing the cell: in most cells, membranes separate different parts of the cell which perform different functions·Recognition: different cell membranes have different surfaces and will interact differently with other cells. This allows cells to recognise one another and act accordingly; human cells cooperate wit each other while they may attack foreign cells including harmful bacteriaStructure of the cell membraneIn 1972 the fluid mosaic model was discovered and is now accepted as the basis of our understanding of cell membranes: It is understood as an asymmetrical mosaic of lipids and proteins. The membrane shows fluid behaviour because of movements and packing variations among its lipids and proteins.The lipid bilayer is two layers of lipid molecules sandwiched together. The lipid molecules have two ends: one is hydrophilic (water loving) and the other is hydrophobic (water hating). When lipid molecules are placed in aqueous solutions they spontaneously form a bilayer structure with the hydrophilic heads on the outside (in contact with the solution) and the hydrophobic tails away from the solution. This is shown in the diagram below:Cell membranes are also made up of the following:vCholesterol - Has hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail and fits neatly between phospholipids molecules.-Helps to regulate fluidity of membrane-Important in mechanical stability-Reduces uncontrolled leakagevGlycolipids - Form when carbohydrate attaches to lipid-Act as receptors for chemicals-Used as signals between cellsvGlycoproteins - Form when carbohydrates combine with membrane proteins-Also act as receptors and make connections with other cellsvProteins - 1000's of different proteins may be found. E.g. Enzymes for digestion, receptor molecules for hormones - Receptor stimulates other membrane proteins, carrier and channel proteins allow passage of water soluble ions, sugars, amino acids, proteins.The current best model of what a cell membrane looks like is in the figure below. As you can see it is made up of two parts. They are the phospholipids (magenta and green), the proteins (orange and red), and the carbohydrates (black). Carbohydrates can be attached to either the phospholipids or the proteins in the...

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