Deterrence Theory Essay

719 words - 3 pages

• This research was on how the celerity of the death penalty on homicides (first degree and non-first degree murders) are affected by deterrence. In the previous years, there have been investigations of certainty of execution and deterrence. The author pointed out that the emphasis of celerity of punishment as a deterrent to crime has been ignored in the death penalty research. The hypothesis was to explore the importance of deterrence for celerity of executions and how deterrence and investigations of the death penalty may be biased because of certainty being ignored. The deterrent effect of certainty and celerity of the death penalty on homicides rates were cross sectional examined for states who still use the death penalty along with socio-demographic variables. The results fell between the pattern from over five decades of deterrence and the death penalty in the United States. Also the results dated back to the writings of Beccaria and Bentham, where supporters of deterrence argued that in order for legal sanctions to be noticed as effective, deterrents to crimes must be severe, administered with certainty, swiftly (celerity) and/or publicly.

• The deterrence effect of certainty and celerity of execution and severity of imprisonment on state homicide rates were examined. Also measures of homicide rates and the certainty of executions while the variety of socio-demographic variables were considered as the control variables. The socio-demographic variables used in this research were population, population density, urban population, non-white population, and male population, population of twenty to forty years of age, education, family income, unemployment and binary southernism. And about 35 states were used.

• Research was conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming.

• In conclusion to the research, measures of homicides were found to be consistent of offense rates in 1960, where the partial regression coefficients fall in the predicted negative direction for certainty and severity but not for the...

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