Develop Some Hypotheses Explaining Why Only Eukaryotic Cells Have Evolved Into Multi Cellular Organisms.

974 words - 4 pages

Prokaryotic cells are structurally simple. They are found only in single-celled and colonial organisms. Eukaryotic cells have organelles with their own membranes. Single-celled eukaryotic organisms are very diverse, but many colonial and multicellular forms also exist. The first of eukaryotic cells probably evolved or split off from Archeans, which have attributes of both prokaryotes (oxygen haters, e.g. bacteria), but also contain genes that are more like what you'd find in eukaryotes (oxygen lovers e.g. plants and animals). The first eukaryote cells probably lived near oxygen producing stromatolites. Indicators suggest that precursors evolved a 2.6 billion years ago--a billion years before the oldest fossil cells. Early single celled eukaryotes probably include amoeba, dinoflagellates, and ciliates (pictured top down to the right). They get food by surrounding and absorbing it, or through mouth-like openings, or other means. Some have internal skeletons cysts.The cysts are found fossilized, but of course you need a microscope to see them. Eukaryotes are larger than prokaryotes and were bigger right from the beginning. They needed to be larger to hold new parts: a nucleus, gene DNA package, and organelles. Life evolved in the sea. It stayed there for the majority of the history of earth. The first fossilized evidence of multi-cellular cells goes back to about 1.5 billion years ago. There was a price to pay for the advantages gained from specialization--death. Prokaryotes cells didn't die--they continued to live by splitting and forming two clones. Only environmental hazards like being eaten or physically destroyed killed them. However, when eukaryotic cells grouped together and specialized, the cells gave up the ability to reproduce by division and began dying. The first replicating molecules were most likely RNA. RNA is a nucleic acid similar to DNA. In laboratory studies it has been shown that some RNA sequences have catalytic capabilities. Most importantly, certain RNA sequences act as polymerases -- enzymes that form strands of RNA from its monomers. This process of self replication is the crucial step in the formation of life. This is called the RNA world hypothesis.The common ancestor of all life probably used RNA as its genetic material. his ancestor gave rise to three major lineages of life. These are: the prokaryotes, archaebacteria (thermophilic, methanogenic and halophilic bacteria) and eukaryotes. Eukaryotes include protists (single celled organisms like amoebas and diatoms and a few multicellular forms such as kelp), fungi (including mushrooms and yeast), plants and animals. Eukaryotes and archaebacteria are the two most closely related of the three. The process of translation (making protein from the instructions on a messenger RNA template) is similar in these lineages, but the organization of the genome and transcription (making messenger RNA from a DNA template) is very different in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes and...

Find Another Essay On Develop some hypotheses explaining why only eukaryotic cells have evolved into multi-cellular organisms.

Is it possible to identify some property or a set of properties that necessarily, all and only humans have? Is this what we mean when we speak of

1258 words - 6 pages altruism, it does not align with the definition of an essence, as it is not characteristic of only humans. As mentioned before, when someone speaks of human nature, they would most likely be referring to a generalisation of modern society, which would already have an established etiquette within each culture. This takes into account that there is a certain standard of being and behaviour, which is considered ‘average’ and ‘normal’. Regarding an

1993 Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Why did this difference in...

1082 words - 4 pages Isabel Olivas Eliason AP U.S. History 6 September 2014 The New World was a marvel and a chance to make it big in the 1600s. England took its gamble at building colonies in the unsettled region of what is now the east coast. It then was separated into two regions, New England and the Chesapeake. Even though they were both founded by the English, their differences in religion, unity, and motives evolved their societies into polar opposites. In New

DBQ 1993 Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Why did this difference in...

1082 words - 4 pages Isabel Olivas Eliason AP U.S. History 6 September 2014 The New World was a marvel and a chance to make it big in the 1600s. England took its gamble at building colonies in the unsettled region of what is now the east coast. It then was separated into two regions, New England and the Chesapeake. Even though they were both founded by the English, their differences in religion, unity, and motives evolved their societies into polar opposites. In New

TOK essay: Do questions like "why should I be moral?" or "why shouldn't I be selfish?" have definitive answers, as do some questions in other Areas of Knowledge?

1363 words - 5 pages deducted from this axiom with some other mathematical rules. In this way, to the question "why don't two parallel lines intersect?" we say that "two parallel lines do not intersect" which is a mathematical axiom, then, we get a definitive answer. Similarly, to the question "why should I be moral?" we say that "People should be moral" which is an ethical axiom, hence, ethical questions have definitive answers too.However, are all the definitive

Genesis 22:1-1 To Find Exactly What This Passage Is Trying To Say From Different Angles. Find Some Meaning Into Who It Is Referring To And Why?

1146 words - 5 pages In Genesis 22 1-19 I will be finding differences in translations from text to text. To find exactly what this passage is trying to say from different angles. Find some meaning into who it is referring to and why?The passage is about God testing Abraham, to find Abraham?s fear of God. The difference I see in the translations is in the New Oxford Annotated Bible and the New American Bible both refer to ?the angel of the lord? while the New

Why did Australia become involved in the war in Iraq and what have been some of the consequences of this?

1065 words - 4 pages President of Iraq. However conflict in Iraq is still continuing, with no immediate end to the conflict possible. There are no definite plans for a timeframe for removal of troops, and in frustration some members of the Coalition of the Willing have withdrawn their support. With almost weekly suicide bombings in Iraq, the people are no safer than they were under Saddam Hussein. The threat to Australia from terrorism has potentially increased, with

Prokaryotic Microbes

2196 words - 9 pages cells walls of bacteria are formed of peptidoglycan, in which the structure of this layer determines the major functions of the cell. The structure of DNA also differs between the two cell classifications. Eukaryotic cells have linear genetic material, organized into chromosomes in the nucleus. Prokaryotic DNA is circular; for example, smaller bacterial plasmids contain some of the cell’s DNA. Prokaryotic bacteria cells are composed of endospores

Description and Analysis of the Cell Theory

1472 words - 6 pages different types of functions. One function is they form a network that anchors the position of cellular organelles. The different types of intermediate filaments form a framework that reinforces the shape of the cell (Culen “Eukaryotic Cells”). Cell differentiation is a process in which a generic cell develops into a specific type of cell. This process allows a single celled zygote to develop into a multi-cellular organism that contains hundreds

The Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Organisms

2171 words - 9 pages and eukaryotic cells is their size: eukaryotic cells are typically larger by a factor of around ten.[5] This results in prokaryotes having a larger surface area to volume ratio, which is integral to the kinetics of metabolic processes.[5] To combat this limitation, eukaryotic cells have evolved to compartmentalise certain cellular processes, enabling the concentrations of key substances to be controlled in a precise manner for different

Prokaryotic Cells

1166 words - 5 pages Prokaryotic Cells All living things are made of cells, and cells are the smallest units that can be alive. Life on Earth is classified into five kingdoms, and they each have their own characteristic kind of cell. However the biggest division is between the cells of the prokaryote kingdom (monera, the bacteria) and those of the other four kingdoms (animals, plants, fungi and protoctista), which are all eukaryotic cells

Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

3777 words - 15 pages around the bacteria and serve to kill and digest those bacteria. Uncontrolled release of lysosome contents into the cytoplasm can also cause cell death (necrosis).Microbodies There are a variety of organelles, which are collectively called microbodies, bounded by single membranes, microbodies are compartments that are specialized for specific metabolic pathways, and each type has a particular group of enzymes. Nearly all eukaryotic cells have

Similar Essays

Why Do Some Children Have Foetal Alcohol Syndrome And Some Do Not?

1557 words - 7 pages animal in any way is purposeful. In recent years studies have been done to determine why only certain embryos are affected by alcohol. These studies have shown that it could be your genes that either make you receptive or protected from FAS. Research on the short and long serotonin transporter gene promoter, which controls the serotonin levels in our brains, was done using monkeys. Using prior evidence that people with the short gene are more

Explain Why Online Only Retailers Have Major Advantages Over Bricks And Mortar Only Shops? Higher Education Business

767 words - 4 pages Explain why online-only retailers have major advantages over bricks and mortar-only shops?(5 marks) Online retailers are retailers that provide or sell goods and service through internet and this often referred as ecommerce. One advantage of online retailer is that it reduces overhead costs. This is because unlike bricks and mortar online retailer does not require expensive storefronts or premises; instead, more cost-effective warehouse is used

Dbq 1993: Why Did The New England And Chesapeake Regions Develop Into 2 Distinct Societies By 1700?

1164 words - 5 pages called the History of Virginia, he states that “with the extremity of the bitter cold frost…more than half of us died”[Doc. F]. The first settlers of the New England colonies didn’t fair too well either. Their first winter of 1620-1621 took a high death toll, leaving only 44 of the original 102 alive. That, however, is where the similarities end. The Chesapeake colonies were fortunate to have extremely fertile soil and soon

Basque Country, Catalonia, And Galicia: Why Do Some Regions Have Stronger Sub National Identities Than Others?

2395 words - 10 pages parliament. Galicia carries almost all of the same responsibilities that Catalonia has, although through a smaller scope, with a lesser population and fewer economic resources. The only thing that Galicia doesn’t have that Catalonia and Basque Country both do is its own police force. Fernando Fernandez, an economist at Madrid's IE Business School, says the Basque region is rich in natural resources. For centuries, it was easier for Basque