If one fails to experience trust, the first stage trust vs. mistrust, and they will become constantly frustrated because their needs were not met, they may end up with a deep-seated feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust of the world in general. During the second stage, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, children are most vulnerable. If one is shamed in the process of toilet training or in learning other important skills, one may feel great shame and doubt of their capabilities and suffer low self-esteem. It is important to remember the most significant relationships are with caregivers.
The third stage is initiative vs. guilt, if a child’s caregiver is always huddling over the child and cutting the child down then the child will be frustrated about their natural desires and goals, they will easily experience guilt. During stage four, industry vs. inferiority, if one experiences unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, one can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem. This is the stage where caregivers become less important and a child’s world expands a bit now including school peers, neighbors and other people. Finally the fifth stage is identity vs. role confusion, one task is to discover who one is as individuals and separate from family. If one is unsuccessful in navigating this stage, one will experience role confusion and upheaval.
So a child who makes it through these five stages at a deficit level will have a very distrust worthy manner to others, they will have low self esteem and not have a great out look on their life. They will have hard time making decisions about their future and have either many intimate relationships or isolate themselves. They will struggle in school and finding out who they are.
If one passes successfully through the first stage, trust vs. mistrust, one will learn to trust that life is basically okay and have basic confidence in the future. In the second stage, autonomy vs. doubt, one has the opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as one gains more control over their bodies and acquire new skills, learning right from wrong. During the third stage, initiative vs. guilt, children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment and once they do it leads to a sense of purpose. During industry vs. inferiority, the fourth stage, children cope with new social and academic demands, which can lead to a sense of competence.
The fifth stage is identity vs. role confusion, now no longer children; teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity they need to learn the ability to stay true to their selves and not fall under peer pressure. The sixth stage, intimacy vs. isolation, now these teens are young adults and need to form...