Developing Countries and New Public Management
The expectation for the government to become better in business has been becoming a hot topic for many countries around the world. Countries are trying to push their effort in order to produce the best performance in the public sector management. There are many schemes of government business theory, or even practice, which could be used by the government in order to produce better quality of public governance. One of the methods is the new public management. The basic idea of the new public management is adopting the business process of private sector. The new public management, theoretically, is giving a set of point of view how the government should work by pointing out efficiency, responsiveness, accountability and transparency (Gow and Dufour, 2000, 578; Sarker, 2006: 180). It seems that the new idea of government management very useful to reduce problems that faces by many governments, such as crummy policies, unresponsive bureaucracies, mismanagement process and focusing on input and output results rather than outcomes.
Regardless that the new public management is very useful in theory, but in reality, most of the countries are very hard to implement it and find their self in the middle of nowhere (Manning, 2001: 300). The fact that the new model of public administration, somewhat, is likely not suitable for most governments in their business. This case is not only for developing countries, but also for developed countries. Maybe, to some extent, there is one example of country that able to follow the nature of new public management. New Zealand is one of the example country that success to carry out the concept of new public management (Schick, 1998: 123 – 131; Manning, 2001: 299). The Government of New Zealand is using contractual dependency arrangements remarkably (Schick, 1998: 124 – 126; Manning, 2001: 299). On the other hand, the developing countries seem that they were trying to crack the nutshell of the new public management concept respectively. The method is beyond the reach for the developing countries (Schick, 1998: 124; Polidano, 1999: 4; Manning, 2001: 300). However, the developing countries are still in progress to change in order to make reform in their governance practice.
This essay will try to evaluate the reform of government business in the developing countries by utilizing the new public management point of view.
The new public management
There are two main reasons for the government in order to improve its business process (Sarker, 2006: 181; Villanueva, 2011: 3; Huque, 2013: 407). The first factor is the internal factor of the government itself that related with the design of bureaucracy. The bureaucracy tends inefficient, rigid, costly, lack of accountability and unsuitable for recent social, and economic growth respectively. In this case, the government seems has an awareness to change because of needed that takes place from inside of the government...